Articles, Blog

Witchcraft: Crash Course European History #10

August 8, 2019


Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So, in the first episode of this series, we
talked about the significance of the year 1431. Remember, that was the year Joan of Arc was
burned to death for heresy and witchcraft because the English were so bewildered that
a teenage peasant girl could lead the French army to victory that they decided she had
to be a witch and a heretic. And, you know, it was pretty bewildering that
a random peasant girl somehow basically became for a time the most important general in the
most important war of the fifteenth century. That said, just to state the obvious: Joan
of Arc was not a witch. But just as she benefited from superstitions
and prophecies about mystically powerful women, she was ultimately destroyed by fears of witchcraft
and dark magic. For the past four episodes, the world has
been turned upside down in the century after Joan’s trial and execution. The Reformation, Commercial and Agricultural
Revolutions, and Counter-Reformation were each in their own way shaking social, and
economic, and political, and religious structures. Perhaps some witches could explain that turmoil. INTRO
So, for most of European history, and indeed for most of world history, people believed
in unseen powers that operated across their world and in their individual lives. Objects from nature could be healing or poisonous,
working in unknown ways. Like, Queen Elizabeth once received a ring
that was supposed to protect her from the plague. Most towns had shamans, a “wise” man or
woman, a wizard, a sorcerer, or another resident who knew about potions, and poultices, and
charms. And look, Queen Elizabeth never got the plague,
so it was easy to conclude that sometimes, at least, this stuff worked! As one bishop wrote in 1552, “When we be
in trouble, or sickness, or lose anything, we run hither and thither to witches or sorcerers,
whom we call wise men, . . . seeking aid and comfort at their hands.” Other wise men could use eclipses, or sunspots,
or comets and various natural phenomena to predict momentous future events. Like, earthquake tremors in Istanbul in 1648
for instance, were said to foretell the murder of the sultan two months later,
All these shamans, and fortune tellers, and special healers were widely depicted in the
many books now streaming from the printing press—with stories that often strayed from
reality. The reading public seemed to revel in tales
of witches: their special witches’ rites, their antics and adventures, their sexual
perversions, and their attacks on (and corruption of) the innocent. Jean Bodin was a famed and influential jurist
who wrote about sovereignty—that is, the nature of state power and authority—in this
age of new monarchy and governmental consolidation. He also famously wrote about witches and demonology
in the vernacular so that a large group would have access to his pieces. And I think it’s important to note Bodin
because his work underscores that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries high-minded political
theory of government and the everyday world of witches co-existed. I think this can be one of the great empathy
barriers in history–it can be hard for some of us to imagine a world where it was almost
universally assumed that the hand of God and the hand of the Devil were constantly shaping
events both large and small. But one of the discomforting things about
humanity is the role luck or fate or however you consider it plays in our lives, and we
all have a desire for life to be a story that makes sense. Saying “Everything happens for a reason”
is one way of doing that; saying, “Witches did it” is another. In some ways, history itself is an attempt
to tell a story that makes sense–we’re trying to find narratives amid an endlessly
complicated web of forces and choices and luck. So I hope thinking about that can help you
empathize a bit. But back to witches: Art is another place
we see a lot of witchcraft. In grand baroque paintings, you can find devils,
serpents, old hags, and other signs of evil filtering across society. Like, in Rubens’ massive painting “Madonna
on the Crescent Moon,” featured at the altar of the Cathedral of Freising, the entire left
third displays devils, and demons, and the serpent of sin for parishioners. And “Council of the Gods,” one of Rubens’
celebratory works on the life of Marie de Medici, depicts a witch-like figure at the
extreme right. And it’s important to note that Rubens was
working from images that had already been around for a long time, in the form of black
and white engravings of the devil and witches in broadsheets and books. So we know ideas about witches were plentiful. But where did they actually originate? The Bible doesn’t say much about them, though
there is this prominent statement in Exodus 22:18: “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to
live.” Popular culture, however, drew on pagan mythology,
full of wily sorceresses and enchantresses using love potions and charms to work their
magic. And people saw woodcuts of witches in flight
or they heard about magicians on flying coats or carpets or they went to healers and unexpectedly
died. But again, we look for stories that make sense,
and it makes sense that a healer with their medicinal potions, might also have access
to poisonous or other dangerous potions. So there were a few lines from the Bible,
a growing collection of scary stories through the Middle Ages, and then came Heinrich Kramer’s
Witches’ Hammer (Malleus Malificarum) in 1487. Kramer was a Dominican monk whose book was
amazingly popular–for over a century, it was the second bestselling book in Europe
behind only the Bible, and the book argues that Satan, due to the fact the Apocalypse
is coming, has “caused a certain unusual heretical perversity to grow up in the land
of the Lord–a heresy, I say, of Sorceresses, since it is to be designated by the particular
gender of which he [Satan] is known to have power.” The book goes on to describe in detail the
many evils of these mostly female practitioners of witchcraft, and to advocate all-out war
against them. These days, Kramer’s book reads like aggressively
misogynistic fantasy fiction–he writes that women are “defective in all the powers of
both soul and body” and claims that witches were, among many other things, practicing
cannibalism and causing male impotence. Because of course if you have magical powers,
that’s how you’re going to use them. But at the time, Witches’ Hammer was tremendously
influential. The book was first approved, then disapproved
by religious authorities. But as Europeans engaged with pagan practices,
Kramer’s witchcraft manifesto gave them a new context. Amid the religious, economic, and social challenges
of these stressful centuries, the hunt for witches accelerated and became lethal. It’s really important to understand that
the idea of witchcraft felt to many Christians in the sixteenth century like a real threat. Did the center of the world just open? Is there a black cat in there? Oh, it must be time for a PSA. Hi! I’m John Green. This is not an evil cat! It’s just a regular nice cat that happens
to have one color of fur. Don’t be mean to these cats. These are great cats! This one happens to be fake because Stan said
I couldn’t put a real cat inside the globe. Stan! But that’s not the point. The point is that this cat is not bad luck. It is not involved in witchcraft. It is a great cat. Or, it would have been a great cat if Stan
had let me use a real cat. So, beginning in 1560 in villages and cities
across Europe, a stream of supposedly demonic incidents took place and a raft of persecutions
followed. Between 1560 and 1800, between 50,000 to 100,000
people were tried for witchcraft in the European world. Unlike Joan of Arc, most purported witches
had little to do with the grand and tumultuous events of those years. Like Joan, the vast majority—approximately
80 percent–were women. And like Joan, many were executed. Almost all major works of demonology during
these years were published in German or in Latin with a German publisher—the Holy Roman
Empire therefore was one major center of the hunt for witches. In 1564, judges for the town council of Augsberg,
a city in the south of the German empire, questioned the healer Anna Megerler when a
boy she had cared for died of a wound. While being intensely grilled, Megerler said
that she had taught secret knowledge to the mighty Anton Fugger, who was headquartered
in Augsberg. Fugger was financier to the Habsburgs and
others. Megerler said her supernatural knowledge had
helped him prosper in finance, and that he in turn had taught her about crystal ball-gazing. The judges determined that it would create
“complications” should they proceed further with the inquiry, and her life was spared. But many women were executed after being tortured
into confessing–and Witches’ Hammer strenuously argued that torture was an appropriate interrogation
technique for potential witches. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. In around 1624, for instance, the slave and
healer Paula de Eguiluz was tried in Spanish Cuba for witchcraft. 2. It was reported that she had killed a child
by sucking on her navel; 3. she had also used other skills to devise
a potion to help cure her master’s illness. 4. Simultaneously Paula de Eguiluz knew the Lord’s
Prayer and Ten Commandments, 5. went regularly to Sunday mass, 6. and faithfully made her confession even
as she gained popularity for her shamanistic healing of people. 7. The lines between Christianity and paganism
have never been bright or clear. 8. The inquisitors in her first hearing condemned
her to 200 lashes and ordered her to perform charitable work. 9. In her third hearing, she fully confessed
to being in league with the devil and a witch even as she continued to frame the use of
her African healing knowledge as a Christian act. 10. By that time she had been convicted and ordered
to be sent to government officials for execution in a move that was cancelled only because
she had popular support. 11. But most women accused of witchcraft didn’t
have the public on their side. 12. Famously, nineteen convicted witches were
hanged in the English colony of Salem, Massachusetts, having initially been accused by young girls
of causing their “fits.” 13. Others died of torture and imprisonment in
the Americas, 14. but the majority of trials and executions
took place in Europe, 15. where, historians believe, tens of thousands
of women were executed for witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries. Thanks, Thought Bubble. [[TV: Midwife]] So, A lying-in-nurse–who
took care of mothers and children in the post-pardum period–was a common target for the accusation,
because she dealt with especially vulnerable people: a mother who had just given birth
and her newborn infant. Both had high mortality rates. And the accused were often older women, those
who had gone through menopause and who were sometimes marginalized because they could
no longer give birth to new community members. Many were also widowed, perhaps isolated and
without a strong network of support. Once a person was seen as a viable suspect,
she was turned over for torture, which was usually carried out by the local hangman,
who would also hang the suspect if she were ultimately found guilty. The suspect was stripped of clothing, shaved
of bodily hair, so that the torturer could minutely examine the body for all the diabolical
signs that had come down in lore and then been codified in various manuals and books
of demonology. Warts, moles, skin tags, hardened nipples,
sagging breasts, and any purportedly diabolical deformations were seen as important evidence. And I just want to note that these are all
things that happen to human bodies naturally over time, so everyone who was older and female
could be construed as a witch. The hangman then applied torture at the direction
of a council of examiners. Knowing the accused person’s body intimately,
he came to know it better by observing and noting the kinds of torture and the victim’s
reaction to each type. Then as now, many tortured people would make
false confessions, which in turn often led to execution. The widespread torture and execution are horrifying,
and they speak to how profoundly afraid people were of the devil and his influence. In 1587, the story of Faust, a scholar who
sells his soul to the devil, was first published. And its themes were relevant to popular and
high culture. Because if a /scholar/ would sell his soul
to the devil, who could be immune? It was common knowledge that the devil was
a trickster and a supreme illusionist, cloaked in all kinds of magic that was difficult to
detect or to separate from the normal, good magic of the unseen world. So in towns and cities, councils examined
suspects often over a period of years, with interrogations interspersed with torture and
deliberations. They would examine a suspect’s words, the
stories she told, and the contradictions within those stories. They tried to discern who was in league with
the devil and who was simply mentally disturbed or a helpful healer or, you know, a victim
of torture. And these councils of notable men always had
the last word, leading some historians to believe that in times of difficulty and disorder,
like the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, men asserted control. Other historians point to the concentrated
focus on women and conclude that the accused were the most vulnerable and often the most
disrespected in society. Moreover, women such as lying-in-nurses dealt
with the most intimate matters of human existence, especially new life, which was then fraught
with danger–around half of all infants born died before their fifth birthday, many in
the first few days of life, and childbirth was among the greatest threats to women’s
lives. Finally, others point out that women were
the main victims because religious scripture referred to the female body as the most impure
and most vulnerable to evil. Being seen as the most unclean, they were
also seen as the most like the devil–tricksters and agents of disorder. The Witches’ Hammer makes this comparison
explicit many, many times. But no matter what conclusions you draw, it’s
important to understand that sexism isn’t just, like, bad in the abstract. It is a system of power that oppresses people,
and in these cases, many times kills them. Between 1700 and 1750, the persecution of
witches diminished, as the tide started to turn against the practice. French courts ordered the arrest of witch-hunters
and the release of suspected witches. In 1682, a French royal decree treated witchcraft
as a fraud. Perhaps the state had taken seriously Michel
de Montaigne’s pronouncement from a century earlier—almost unique at the time, by the
way: “it is taking one’s conjectures rather seriously to roast someone alive for them.” By 1700, people had a more positive view of
the divine and had relaxed their view that the Devil’s hand was at work in everyday
life or in natural disasters. Although some religious authorities might
still see misfortune as the work of the Devil, others had a better understanding that there
were scientific laws behind the operations of nature. More than that, the worst of the multifaceted
religious and political turmoil was over and questions of political order seemed less menacing. We’ll discuss how these new understandings
came about in the next few episodes. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you then.

100 Comments

  • Reply Linda Bishop June 26, 2019 at 4:36 am

    If this is a crash course in European history why in the world is the woman depicted as a witch black? What statement is that making?

  • Reply Ben Hackett June 26, 2019 at 4:49 am

    It's believed Joan of Arc (not actually her real name), had schizophrenia.

    She was far from the only person to lead an army who had a mental illness!

  • Reply The Orkenator June 26, 2019 at 5:19 am

    Holy snaps! Now I know how "feminazim" came about. Thanks for the upload crash course.

  • Reply Aozora Kinoshita June 26, 2019 at 6:14 am

    The devil is real, he drove them all mad with fear
    laughing his head off as the guillotine cut them, from ear to ear

  • Reply SB June 26, 2019 at 6:45 am

    of the 19 executed during the Salem trials, 6 were men

  • Reply Eoin Campbell June 26, 2019 at 6:48 am

    I'm sorry why do we still listen to this magic book that was used to justify the death of millions?

  • Reply Albert Brennaman June 26, 2019 at 6:49 am

    John Green: "The discrepancy between our lives and their lives makes it really difficult for us to emphasize with their choices"
    also John Green: "What they did was bad, because of sexism"

    pick one John

  • Reply SomeDude June 26, 2019 at 10:13 am

    Except for terrorism hunting, modern psychiatry is also doing the same thing as witch hunting. Things just have become worse.

  • Reply LGBTQ Conservative June 26, 2019 at 1:46 pm

    Joan of Arc helps the French defeat the English after which the English get salty and burn Joan of Arc for being a "witch"

  • Reply wolf310765 June 26, 2019 at 1:52 pm

    put a video where you can say without fear ' i don't believe in god. i don't believe in jesus. i don't believe in satan. i don't believe in heaven. i don't believe in hell. i wait for u

  • Reply rezkalla June 26, 2019 at 4:40 pm

    We still torture people into confessing, only now it's for terrorism.

  • Reply Cameron Miller June 26, 2019 at 7:27 pm

    You talk about torture as if it were specific to witch trials. It's my understanding that during this time period, torture was used in all criminal trials. Naturally, this was a backward and ignorant time and thankfully no justice official today would ever try to force a suspect to confess if that would risk a forced confession to something they didn't do.

  • Reply Herbal Shaman June 26, 2019 at 7:48 pm

    Witchcraft didn't begin in Europe. Wtf?

  • Reply Spiritual Anarchist June 26, 2019 at 8:12 pm

    **The witchcraft chapter in history is a good example of the ' Hollywood influence' on younger generations Americans. There have been made dozens of movies and T.V series on those few people who died in the Salem trails , So it's not so strange so many kids in the U.S believe the Salem trails being the ultimate witch trail in global history . Not even knowing about the tens of thousands who where burned & hanged in Europe.

  • Reply ii121 June 26, 2019 at 9:20 pm

    great video. I feel like Witchcraft often gets boiled down to "well they were stupid back then" or the slightly better "it was just a bunch of rich people having a feud." The second one is closer to the truth but it goes so much deeper than that.

  • Reply 22843 June 26, 2019 at 9:46 pm

    imagine my disappointment….finding out that this isn't a crash course to learning how to be a witch

  • Reply Dee B June 26, 2019 at 9:53 pm

    Your breast is sagging! You are a witch!

  • Reply Tristan Wolfe June 26, 2019 at 10:17 pm

    sexism and racism are not systems of power. That is not the definition of these words. These are the re-imagined definitions used by people who wish to excuse their own sexism and racism by claiming that they can't be sexist and racist because they are sexist and racist toward the right group of people. You lost all credibility there.

  • Reply tanya292 June 26, 2019 at 11:39 pm

    A lot of the "witches" were just women using herbs to heal the diseases of their family. Praying won't make your child's sickness go away. And of course 99% of the accused were women by men.

  • Reply inqwizit0r June 27, 2019 at 1:16 am

    Disappointed with this one, it doesn't really trace the link between the Black Death, the Reformation, the loss of church authority and the outbreak of the witch-hunt. Pagan superstitions were not new and the church had been opposed to witch-hunts: Pope Alexander IV prohibited church investigations into witchcraft in 1258. Heinrich Kramer was censured by the church in 1490. And the Spanish Inquisition cautioned its members against believing anything that Kramer published in the Malleus Maleficarum in 1538. The early modern witch-hunt was centered in areas of Germany most affected by the Reformation.

  • Reply TheProphesizedWalnut June 27, 2019 at 12:57 pm

    Men have always LOVED nice, beautiful, perky breasts. So they decided that any sagging boobs were a heretical offense that needed to go lol

    Like for perky boobs
    Comment for Saggy Boobs

    YOU DECIDE!

  • Reply EXTOL ZEBULON June 27, 2019 at 2:03 pm

    The Exodused Israelite Tribes whom landed in URope fought off this pagan baalbylon & rome (Viking attacks on priests monasteries )
    It is other pagan religions ( cabal Islam & rome ) whom brought this plague. Israelites could serve ONE GOD but historically most persecuted.
    These drawings and paintings might be made in URope but the subjects were of foreign decend.
    Dig further to whom were behind these witch trials and slave trade ( who proffited )

  • Reply Tabetha June 27, 2019 at 5:16 pm

    I love crash course… the thing I don’t like: pretending like a misconstrued and confused version of Christianity created by those who seek to control a population is ALL of Christianity. I totally believe that good and bad spirits interact with everyday events… that doesn’t mean I don’t believe that goes hand in hand with science. I think that science need to stop trying to be a way to disprove the spiritual realm. It can’t. Instead, allow it to be what it is: a way to observe the natural world around us. Just because evil people did evil things and used Christianity’s name doesn’t mean that people who actually love Jesus and believe in the TRUE bible are like them. Christianity looks like Jesus, not like some whacko who likes to kill women.

  • Reply Richard Johnson June 27, 2019 at 10:15 pm

    nothing has changed

  • Reply John Erickson June 27, 2019 at 11:02 pm

    @12:54 Are they going to put a duck on the other side of that scale?

  • Reply Bodacious Tness June 28, 2019 at 1:49 am

    Seems like middle-aged widows would have inherited property from their dead husbands – pretty much the only way they could own it. Getting them out of the way meant land could be confiscated.

  • Reply Chamisa Redmond June 28, 2019 at 2:21 am

    Smart is the new sexy!!!

  • Reply powerist June 28, 2019 at 3:57 am

    Part of me thinks that either Witchhunters hate old women or the fact that female who live beyond the age of 50 are rare to the point that such thoughts are inconceivable (or worse assuming that such people used sorcerous means to live beyond that age).
    Edit: And maybe inspiration for Monty Python and the Holy Grail's witch scene.

  • Reply Underground Skeptic June 28, 2019 at 5:01 am

    Summary of the video: Misogyny

  • Reply Kieran McGarvey June 28, 2019 at 5:47 am

    big cungess

  • Reply Furry Fox June 28, 2019 at 6:16 am

    “So, if she weighs the same as a duck, she’s made of wood.”

    “And therefore?”

    silence

    “A WITCH!”

  • Reply skye Amber Love-a-Peace Apollo Moonchild June 28, 2019 at 10:04 am

    I think they missed a huge part of all this was the Catholic churches vested interest in dominating the pre-medical/pharmaceutical industry and the reproductive governance of women. lye-in-nurses (midwives) and healers, wise women, would prescribe herbs to prevent women from becoming pregnant and obviously aid in births taking power and consort away from the church.

  • Reply Native Europe June 28, 2019 at 12:42 pm

    When you're claiming to teach us about European history, but there's a black woman in your thumbnail??? Fuk off, I want real history, not anti-European, cultural marxist revisionism.

  • Reply Mikael Hofstadt June 28, 2019 at 12:51 pm

    BORING

  • Reply AliaLately June 28, 2019 at 12:55 pm

    I also believe in unseen powers. The general theory of relativity, quantum physics, the local department of road services…

  • Reply Pyro-Nexus June 28, 2019 at 6:43 pm

    One thing I don't understand is why everybody's fine with Kiki's Delivery Service portraying a witch as a cute little children character. I find that insulting to all the women who died from the accusations of withces. But I guess that's cool, because everybody's such a weeb. I'm just saying, if westerners took a japanese concept with dark history and adapted it as a children content, people would be mad.

  • Reply Sunberries84 June 29, 2019 at 2:36 pm

    Why couldn't they put a fake cat in the globe and then have John cuddle a real kitty? I want to see John play with a cat.

  • Reply maria June 29, 2019 at 8:52 pm

    Amazing, thank u!

  • Reply Daniel Houck June 30, 2019 at 1:25 am

    You say that black cats are not evil, and then you say they are just regular cats. Which is it?

  • Reply Pika Chu June 30, 2019 at 2:35 am

    I think its really funny that he says “people USED TO believe in the supernatural and in unseen forces of magic and the divine” when a.) people still do and b.) he’s a Christian so definitionally he believes in the supernatural, magical, and the divine. Like, his whole religion is based on the supernatural.

  • Reply William Levy June 30, 2019 at 5:33 am

    History has been rewritten. Jan of Arc WAS a witch. This electronic device you are viewing this comment through was created by wiccans in our world. The first thing the Devil tries to convince people is hat he doesn't exist! Wakey wakey people.

  • Reply Christina Grandrath June 30, 2019 at 11:02 am

    "Augsberg" is actually called Augsburg. There is a small village called Augsberg in the south of Germany but the Fuggers lived in Augsburg.

  • Reply Peyton Hutchens June 30, 2019 at 7:19 pm

    I cant believe you wrote paper towns and the fault in our stars

  • Reply TOFKAS01 June 30, 2019 at 8:22 pm

    14:09 Well, it took some time. The last witches in Europe were burned in 1787 in Glarus swuzzerland and 1793 in Posen (Prussia). But both burnings lead to larfe protests in europe, especially in the educated parts of society.

  • Reply Chilukar June 30, 2019 at 11:16 pm

    To those wondering how people could act this way, substitute "immigrant" for witch for modern equivalent. (They are rapists and criminals and murderers). It has always been easy to demonise the "other".

    But before getting too high on your horse, ask who your other might be. A Trump supporter? The conservative religious? Brexiteers?
    (They are all stupid, uneducated, racist etc.)

    Am I or you much different in demonising the "other"?

  • Reply Steven Kluth July 1, 2019 at 4:11 am

    A better PSA for the cat in the globe: Adopt a cat from a shelter. Especially a black cat. Black cats (and dogs) are adopted less often than other cats (and dogs).

  • Reply s p July 1, 2019 at 4:14 am

    I have a copy of the Malleus Maleficarum, and it's…. interesting.

  • Reply skysthe limitvideos July 1, 2019 at 11:36 am

    Not enough Harry Potter references 0/10

  • Reply Michael Name July 1, 2019 at 3:20 pm

    Augsberg is written Augsburg. Stupid witches. switching the letters.

  • Reply salsoupart July 1, 2019 at 5:51 pm

    Black cats often have the most wonderful temperaments. So loveable

  • Reply Christian Nelson July 1, 2019 at 6:07 pm

    Just a small nitpick; the city of Istanbul wasn't called Istanbul until after the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. The Ottomans called it Konstantiniyye, which is the Ottomanised version of Constantinople.

  • Reply Ton Fiselier July 1, 2019 at 7:06 pm

    An interesting figure in the European witch trials is Johann Weyer (or, in his native Dutch, Johannes Wier), a physician who was among the first to speak out against torture and the persecution of witches. In 1563 he published 'De Praestigiis Daemonum et Incantationibus ac Venificiis' ('On the Illusions of the Demons and on Spells and Poisons'). Jean Bodin actively argued against his publications.

  • Reply RummThom July 1, 2019 at 7:51 pm

    Wuhuu Augsburg!!

  • Reply Allblack88 July 2, 2019 at 1:46 am

    Joan of Arc wasn't a witch. Even if she was who cares. She was amazng. Stop marginalizing witches.

  • Reply VenschZitroneneis July 2, 2019 at 7:33 am

    Hi, as always I enjoy your history lesson, but I think at around 8:15 you may mean "Augsburg" and not "Augsberg". It does not seem like much of a difference, but a Burg is a castle and a Berg is a mountain.

  • Reply beatjunkybg July 2, 2019 at 1:23 pm

    Uneducated people and religion is a very dangerous combination. Still plenty of those today

  • Reply M B July 2, 2019 at 5:29 pm

    Cause Gravity ain't an unseen and poorly understood force that we all believe in nowadays because it has been demonstrated to us by authority figures using a system that works because they say it does.

  • Reply Konfident Kayy July 2, 2019 at 8:45 pm

    The people who fear witchcraft because it’s seen as evil be the most evil people it seems like

  • Reply Sir Panda Productions July 3, 2019 at 4:31 am

    I have 2 black cats, I love them, They so cute :3

  • Reply Jolo Mondonedo July 3, 2019 at 3:13 pm

    Suffer not the witch to live. For the Emperor!

  • Reply Salinea demoiselledefortune July 3, 2019 at 3:33 pm

    As this series continues I'm starting to be rather upset by the complete lack of mention of Jews, especially as victims of the Inquisition and religious persecution, despite the fact that every other victims of such are thoroughly explored; and despite the fact that the Spanish Inquisition persecution of convert Jews was one of the foundation of modern antisemitism as racial discrimination rather than purely religious. It's like Jews aren't at all part of the history of Europe, according to this series.

  • Reply Markus Specht July 3, 2019 at 9:04 pm

    Great video (as always!!), guys. But the town is spelled Augsburg with a u instead of an e, for future reference. 🙂

  • Reply Edd Grs July 4, 2019 at 9:03 am

    "Joan of Arc was not a which" – careful John Green, those words sound a lot like heresy. Do you even know if she floated, or not ?

  • Reply Gary McSpadden tech July 4, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    My ex-wife had a lot of diabolical deformations.

  • Reply Gary McSpadden tech July 4, 2019 at 9:14 pm

    Not one single word about Harry Potter. I thought this was going to be a serious discussion.

  • Reply Isaac Dudart-Aberdeen July 5, 2019 at 11:04 am

    Not even going to mention the pre-christian pagan 'witchcraft' of the celts or gauls? Where the 'witch' functioned as part of a legitimate belief system rather than just the fearful speculations of post-1400 christians

  • Reply WTF how bizarre July 6, 2019 at 8:38 am

    Just how long have they thought the world was coming to an end?

  • Reply WTF how bizarre July 6, 2019 at 8:48 am

    it's just messed up.
    Who doesn't love cougars and MILFs? Not every cougar or MILF is a witch.
    But heck torture someone enough and they'll admit to being anyone you want. They'd admit to even being Napoleon.

  • Reply Panino Manino July 13, 2019 at 4:14 pm

    How he always knows that the center of the globe opened? Witch powers!

  • Reply Azelheidr Ruth July 13, 2019 at 9:41 pm

    YaAaaaAssssss WITCH

  • Reply Shubham Shinde July 14, 2019 at 3:28 pm

    What happened to your energy? Older videos of you were better.

  • Reply YeezyVII July 15, 2019 at 1:55 am

    witchcraft exists. once you engage there is no going back!

  • Reply Ben Johnston July 17, 2019 at 3:52 am

    Damn you Stan, you missed a great chance for a Schrodinger's Cat reference IF you had of put a real cat in the globe (and never opened it)

  • Reply LIA MINELLI July 18, 2019 at 9:02 pm

    Omggg John is getting up there! Voice got deeper, slower, hair getting grey. I remember watching him in my AP history class in HS & struggling to keep up with his energy & fast talking 😂❤️❤️

  • Reply Robyn Fischer July 20, 2019 at 4:09 pm

    The male impotence portion is actually very interesting. Most of the time women didn’t have any sort of birth control options unless their husbands intentionally didn’t finish inside. But even this was considered a sinful act by the church. And of course, constant childbirth was a sort of prison for most women and allowed husbands to control their entire lives. But if the husband was impotent, the woman was free of that burden. It was the man who then “suffered” because if he couldn’t produce heirs, he must not be worthy. It was literally the only way some women could have their own lives saved given the high mortality rate for childbirth. But of course this led men to anger (Henry VIII) and women were blamed as witches because they would have been the ones to hope for this and since the causes for impotence were not understood it must have been magic. So these women were blamed and killed for simply wanting a bit of freedom and to not be used as a breeder.

  • Reply marta bilinska July 20, 2019 at 6:31 pm

    Fun fact: the earliest mentions of witches in books didn’t actually include any cats. Instead there was a lot written about rats and since handwritten ‘c’ and ‘r’ were similar, ‘rats’ became ‘cats’.

  • Reply Funk Q July 21, 2019 at 6:12 pm

    Religion is far more dangerous than Witchcraft at least with Witchcraft there has been some proof it exists, but you need to look at what is the definition for a Witch and that is were it gets tricky
    Words have power, throughout history it has been words that have condemned people with no facts or proof and that is what religion is no facts or proof just faith we have to then question is that not then Witchcraft, so them is the bible not a grimoire or the quran or any suppose holy book, or relic it all could be seen as Witchcraft.
    I think it all comes down to what a person is willing to believe and is that person going to question what society tells them we have been subjected to different religions for centuries that we look favourably at them, that is why in the 21st century you have billions of people blindly following religious belief, if that's not Witchcraft

  • Reply Pedro Abreu July 22, 2019 at 1:50 pm

    Is this Jon from the future?

  • Reply Kassie Fox July 25, 2019 at 6:18 pm

    Exodus 22:18 is a purposeful mis-translation by King James. The original text literally translates to "Thou shalt not suffer a poisoner to live"

  • Reply Gonzalo Bernal July 26, 2019 at 11:14 am

    Witches were religiously hunted for Info and thier estates… as fréy past on along male or female, they were prosecuted to attain thier wealth. That's why some were educated or older… Independent. Something the some reformers wanted was wealth and younger… forced signatures or after accusations… death… and confiscation.

    In Catholic nations, mainly information. They were spy at worst and money pots at best.

  • Reply Husain Alhayki July 26, 2019 at 6:53 pm

    Just few Days ago a Libyan general claimed his rival is using black magic

  • Reply Ivy Hoelke Hypnotic suggestions and Oracel Readings July 28, 2019 at 12:51 am

    Great cats!

  • Reply Jesus Christ’sLove Ministries July 28, 2019 at 11:51 am

    Repent! Witchcraft is real!

  • Reply fix mix July 29, 2019 at 9:25 am

    Sagging breast? My ex is a witch i knew it.

  • Reply MorganKydd July 29, 2019 at 10:24 am

    I adore black cats. Subbed.

  • Reply Robert Caraher July 29, 2019 at 1:44 pm

    You should have said people believed the truth of unseen powers.

  • Reply Robert Caraher July 29, 2019 at 1:47 pm

    If it isn't the Lord and satan creating these scenarios, then it is you. Careful there boy.

    Matthew 10:34 King James Version (KJV)

    34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword

  • Reply Russells Teapot July 30, 2019 at 10:55 am

    *Augsburg

  • Reply Paul Hunt July 31, 2019 at 1:24 am

    ‘As it was with the witches: before rationality, science, technology and modern economics could be established, all wild, untamed, magic and backward-looking thinking had to be violently eliminated. Today it is no different: violence is needed to “civilize”, “improve” the “underdeveloped world” and “wild nature”. Violence is therefor still the secret of modern capitalist-patriarchal civilization.’
    — Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, 1986

  • Reply Bliefking July 31, 2019 at 5:25 pm

    Isn’t it AugsbUrg? With a U?

  • Reply What a Buffoon August 1, 2019 at 6:09 am

    I'm a little disappointed that this video doesn't connect the witch burnings to enclosure. They served to bring down powerful women, specifically powerful women not doing christianity right, but they were also about fracturing the communities in which those people resided and taking social power for the church.

  • Reply Ed genner August 1, 2019 at 1:41 pm

    Much kudos for respecting the victims. The thing I don't like is that you don't explain Jhon's death is political and witch fear was used to cover that they killed her to advance their agenda not to kill a witch. Actually, you don't mention it as the main reason women were convicted or accused.

  • Reply Panita s August 3, 2019 at 9:19 am

    Are there any references for Anna Megerler's case that I can read more about? I'm working on this topic right now but couldn't find her name by searching online:(

  • Reply 딸기우유 August 3, 2019 at 12:10 pm

    That Paula De Eguiluz reminds me of a episode on Netflix where she was slave/witch and they was gonna burn her but she and her master fell in love but within the time she was sent to jail some old man gave her a bottle to drink and she ended up in da future

  • Reply Geno Bot August 4, 2019 at 12:02 pm

    Just a reminder: Islam is the most hateful ideology ever invented.

  • Reply Aislee Love Greenwood August 4, 2019 at 4:40 pm

    You know, I've always wanted to go back in time and say to these people, "Look, if she was really a witch, do you think she'd be letting you do these things to her, or don't you think she would have magicked her way out of this mess by now? You claim she can do all of these things— fly, curse, cause deaths, control the actions of others, yet she's not using her abilities to fly away or kill her persecutors?" 🙄

  • Reply steve rogers August 5, 2019 at 9:02 am

    With Jesus miracles .would Jesus be considered a witch

  • Reply Gonzalo Bernal August 8, 2019 at 7:43 am

    Which was a generic term for asking and also changing and deciding. Ese Witch is that witch and also b is the phrase for switch.

    Imagine the women who are tired of the araki of the Catholic church and then the Reformation comes and are told of freedoms only to find out set these freedoms are the same as a Catholic church but on the smaller level still holding them at a lower level, without any rights. So they change again and are called witches. Also they new levels of science sometimes more advanced than the males who exported them in that manner as well. hence the lethality and also the taking of property from former wives. As some Protestants were faithful others or just explaining it to kill their way to wealth but by murder. Which even back then was a crime. It was the Medieval version calling someone a spy , but the reality was that it was more on Broad so as to eventually be able to control a gender population. Not all Protestants were bad but unfortunately some of were naively conned. For all the faults of the old church now you know why we couldn't change but we changed enough and we change enough. We called them sisters and they were of the old Olympic fé… then Roman… all the while protecting passionate gypsies…. as well as the Gentiles Fréy… and mighty Judean into India and Africa and back…

    Anyways, this is what we get trapped princesses from Queens Kings and Princess having to be rescued by Brave Heroes. You notice I separate the distinction between princes and heroes. Some Were Heroes, some were princes, some were both, most were none. most princes we're lazy and or greedy or both… and again Catholic women had property. Would you call love they called acquisition. Love be damned. Do you understand how Western Civilization is different from an Asiatic practitioner now?

  • Reply Gonzalo Bernal August 8, 2019 at 7:43 am

    Great video… on a roll

  • Reply ClothesObsessed August 8, 2019 at 8:45 pm

    can we do some world history, not based in Europe ?

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