Articles, Blog

UL 1: Lecture 1 – Human Migration & Beginning of Agriculture

August 14, 2019

Hello and welcome to our first online lecture for
World History This is how its going to work. You should have
picked up a worksheet label lecture one from the
table when you walked in. Any time that there’s a new lecture or activity that
will be talked about or used in this class you’ll
find it on that table ready for you to pick up when you get
there. This particular one is called lecture one. The
blanks that are on lecture one will correspond to the information that you’ll find
on the notes and information I’m going to present
here. There are times were I might add information that
is not mentioned in the presentation or the notes. You were still responsible for knowing it. Please make sure that you’re taking the time to
listen to the lecture not simply just writing it down. There’s a lot of other valuable information that I
talk about but not listed. Additionally, please make sure you put away all
distractions. This would include your cell phones,
smart phones Xbox, PlayStation, television, MP 3 player Whatever. Put this stuff away. These things will
slow you down and prevent you from getting all
the information. Also, I encourage you to use the pause button if
you need to. At the end of every slide at try to put on an
automatic pause so that you can get all the
information down that was on the slide, but if I forget to add one please free to use the pause
button. Finally if there’s anything you missed or didn’t
understand from the lecture please free to review
it again or simply ask me. That’s what I’m here for. So now that we got all this basic information
down, let’s get started on our first lecture which we’ll be talking about where humans came
from, how they moved around and the beginning of agriculture. So lets get started. We always start out a new lecture with the part
that I call “setting the stage”. This simply is giving us a little bit of background
information prior to getting into the details of the
notes. Today we’re going to look at a few terms and
definitions as we set the stage. So, setting the stage. We’re looking at the answer
to one simple question. Who are we? Well maybe that isn’t such an easy question after
all. Maybe we have to put some perspective into it or
ask some follow-up questions like: Where did we as humans come from? There’s a lot of information a lot of ways to
understand or question those three words who
are we. So let’s take a look at what we’ve come up with
and setting the stage giving us a little
background. Evidence suggests that we as humans could be
much older than a orgininally had been thought. In order for us to find out this information about the past scientists used artifacts to search
for clues in order to answer these questions. Artifacts simply are human made objects like
tools and jewelry that help us better understand
the people that use them. Using artifacts helps scientists
understand how people lived a long time ago. Whether or not they used forks and spoons, had
dolls. What kinds of weapons that were used. All these things help tell us what life might have
been like back in the day. Back in the earliest human times there was really
no type of documentation of writing things down
of what life might have been like. This was the period of time known as pre-history. This general term typically leaves more
questions than it answers. Simply put prehistory is the time before the
invention of writing. Because of the lack of writing, archaeologists
who are those people that study the past, use artifacts to get an idea of what it might have
been like to live millions of years ago. The important thing to know about studying the
past is that the story is not complete and there
are many questions yet to still be answered. Now when we look into the beginning of history of
humans there are two prevailing ideas. The first idea is that of creation. That some higher power had put humans here
on earth. The second theory is evolution, or that the theory
that humans evolved or developed from other beings over a long period of time. I’m not here to tell you which one is right or which
one is wrong. What I am here to do is to tell you what science
has found and been able to discover based upon
artifacts and other known facts. Whether you believe in creationism or evolution
I’m really not the person to ask in that regard or much less talk
about. I will simply tell you the different beliefs of evolution and the different beliefs of creation
and let you decide for yourself. So with that in mind, scientists have found some
very interesting evidence in Africa. Anthropologists who are people who study
culture and paleontologists who are people this thethat study fossils, attempt
to use artifacts and fossils to understand early
human culture. Culture is simply a people’s way of life or their
unique way of life. How the way that they live differs from others.These differences usually are
in their values attitudes, beliefs, and, customs. Together these 4 intricate pieces make up a
person’s or groups culture. So, let’s talk about Lucy. Lucy! Whose Lucy? Well now that we have some background
information, let’s look at what scientists have
found. In 1974 scientists made a remarkable find in the
Ethiopia. They came across an almost complete skeleton
and her name was Lucy. What made this remarkable find was that it was
unusually complete skeleton of a female hominid. Hominid refers to a being that was able to walk
upright on two legs. So whenever you hear that
word hominid think of something that some human type being
that walks on two legs. The discovery was made by Donald Johanson
and his team in 1974 in Africa. This skeleton was named Lucy after the Beatles
song “Lucy in the sky with diamonds”. The skeleton was dated to be about 3 1/2 million
years old. That means that whomever this female was, she
was able to walk upright on two legs, 3 1/2
million years ago. This was a major find. Class, meet Lucy, or at least what’s left over
when the found her. They were able to determine it was female based
upon her pelvis bones that were found. The
remains of her pelvis bones that were found. Simply her pelvis bones were
her hip bones. Men and women tend to have different size and
density of hip bones than one other, So that how they were kinda able
to determine that Lucy, or this artifact, was
actually female. Another amazing find was that was not terribly far
from Lucy was a set of ancient footprints known
as the Laetoli footprints What makes a set of footprints interesting is that
they were made of two hominids and that they’ve been preserved in volcanic ash in the area of
present day Tanzania Africa, the central part of Africa, central and eastern part of Africa This discovery was made by an anthropologist
Mary Leakey in 1978. Now why should we care about a bunch of
footprints you ask? Well these footprints were dated to be about 3.6
million years old. To visualize that’s 3,600,000 years ago. Thats a
big number. And for the record, Christians believe that
humans have only been around for 6,000 years according to Archbishop James Usher in 1658
and Dr. Floyd Nolan James in 1996. So the religion is certainly a lot different than what science has told us And if you look really closely you can see that this
image is actually a Google picture that they put
up on their Google site recognizing this find by Mary Leakey in 1978. Youc an kind of see
the word Google in that picture if you look really close for those
who don’t pay attention Here is a scaled cast or mold of the Leotoli
footprints. Based upon the evidence these hominids were
bipedal, which means they walked on two legs. There is also evidence that suggests that one of
the two pairs had stopped turned around briefly to look behind before continuing on walking. What they were looking at is uncertain, but it does
create more questions. Neither Lucy nor the Leotoli footprints were
made by what we consider humans today. Other such beings such as Cro-Magnons, homo
erectus, and Neanderthals walked the earth
before we did. DNA evidence collected concludes that there’s no
link between any of these beings to each other. There’s kind of a missing link. The closest example I can think of on how they
might relate to one another as hominids is that they could be considered a separate species
from one another. Similar in many characteristics but different.
Similar because between the difference it’s like a difference between robin and an eagle. both can fly, but they’re certainly not nearly the
same kind of bird. You can kind of put that into a similar perspective with Cro-Magnons, homo erectus, and
Neanderthals. They might have looked similar
but they are really not. So now that we’ve seen about how hominids first
appeared on earth now we’re gonna go into where the came from
and where they ended up. From this map you can see where the continent
these hominids started. Well if you trace these arrows backwards you
can see the area was Central Africa. The dates on these maps don’t identify when
hominids were there, but it shows the time when they started to leave. Here we notice that
hominids started leaving Central Africa about
150,000 and 100,000 years ago. Somewhere in there. This is done based upon the artifacts that
scientists have found in different areas around
the region and around the world and from that we can get
an idea of when they showed up in different
areas around the globe. So let’s look at where humans have migrade to
and what we can learn from it. Humans, such as ourselves are known as homo
sapiens, which means “wise men”. Due too the brain size and how it compares to
other hominids basically it means our brains
were bigger than those others hominids that seen. Eventually homo erectis, which is another
type of hominid, and homo sapiens migrated out
of Africa. Early on humans were nomads, or highly mobile
people, who moved from place to place forging for new sources of food. We also know that early humans were hunter
gatherers. Hunter gatherers are simply those people whose food supply depended upon them hunting
animals and collecting plant foods. As I mentioned in the last slide it’s estimated that
these groups started leaving Africa around
125,000 years ago. Also is a mentioned before, humans have been
around according to science 3 1/2 million years
ago. So for that long time frame they kind of stayed in
the same place up until 125,000 years ago. As far as we can tell humans began settling
Europe around 33,000 years ago, China around
67,000 years ago, Australia 38,000 years and North America around 12,000 years ago.
South America between 12 and 33,000 years ago Some of these timeframes vary based upon
known archaeological facts and assumptions.
So there’s obvioudly nobody really there there’s evidence of documents to show that they were
there. This is just based on what archaeologists
have found with other evidence while researching. Another way that we know these dates is due to
similar stone tool artifacts found in different regions that dates to roughly the
same time period. Geologists found the age of rocks and based
upon the age rocks they can deduce when they
were used as tools. Finding that all of these tools shows that the early
humans use technology to meet their needs. Keep in mind technology simply means the applying of knowledge and tools and
inventions to meet their needs. What we call technology today is much different than the
technology back then. Using new types of things to create
jobs to get a job done. To create items to do the job done thats kind of
what technology. So back then the arrowhead is a
type of technology Creating a spear or spoon or hammer those are
tools, technology tools that these people would have developed so
technology today means much different there’s something much different than
what it we call it would consider from back then. So may be asking yourself why did they leave Africa? Well if everyone is living in the same place
there’s gonna be competition with other humans
for food room and other resources. They would likely have followed the animal herds.
Remember these people were hunter gatherers. They go where the food is. If food moves so do
they. And simply people left Africa because of human
curiosity. Whats over that hill? Lets go find out. Human curiosity can be attributed to many parts
of human history. Which we will be looking at in future unit levels as we go forward. Instead of following the herds of animals why not find a spot to call home and live off the land. Agriculture changes
everything. Early nomads lived in bands of 25 to 70 people as best as we can tell. They worked together for
mutual survival. Around 10,000 years ago although during the
neolithic revolution people began the art of
farming. Based upon some evidence farming actually
happen accidentally when some women scattered some seeds near
a campsite and notice that the crops growing
there when they came back the following season. It is assumed that the women did this because it
was accepted that it was the man would do the
most dangerous hunting since they’re typically more physical up to do it, and a woman would do
the gathering. So the women would see these changes
because they’d be gathering from the soil and
from the earth where the man are more interested in
shooting their deer or their elephant or whatever. Rising temperatures worldwide would also
provide for a longer growing seasons. This
would also have allowed those who began planting food to allow their harvests to grow longer and create a better and useful crop. The longer
the planting season the better of the crop. It didn’t take them long to realize that farming
produced more food than hunting or gathering
and that they do not have to go far to do the Now the nomads could stay in one place and
one area and make enough food for everyone
without having to do a lot hunting. And here’s just a cute little comic strip I’m tired of hunting and gathering too but
nobody’s invited the grocery store. Once the ability to find food had started taking
root, more food provided for higher populations
and thus more laborers. Now we start seeing an early
population explosion. And this holds true today in areas where food
increases we also see increase in population. Due to labor and farming methods permanent
settlements began to develop. From here we see permanent settlements turn
into villages, villages turned into cities, and cities turn into
entire civilizations. Once you reach a certain population you can begin the specialization of skills. Now everybody doesn’t need to farm because it got enough farmers to feed more
people than it takes to produce the food. Simply put specialization is the development of
skills in a specific kind of work other than farming An example would be instead of farming a
person might make stone tools or help those that do do the farming. or help those that do do the farming. Originally to come up with the way the plant that
people would use all we know as a slash and
burn farming. The cutting down and burning of trees and
foliage allowing for the nutrients in the soil to
develop. Obviously back then they probably knew nothing
about nutrients other than the fact that it was
making their crops better. The next advancement was the use of the
domestication or taming of animals. Think of it this way would you rather go hunting
for your meat or would you rather go into the
back, find a good cow in your fenced in the area it. Imagine the time saved and the fact that you
can control all aspects of obtaining your food. Not only keen you simply just produce your own
fruits and vegetables from the field now you can also obtain your wild animals retain
your animals keep them in a fenced in the area,
and kill them for the meat the protein. Thats the best world you don’t have to go
anywhere in order to survive you can do it all
within a small area. Coming up next in our next lecture: Eventually all of this farming and domestication
advancements would lead up to the creation of the first civilization on earth in the region known
as mesopotamia. This first civilization would also be known as
Sumer Which you can see in the bottom right
hand of the screen here There you have it. You’ve completed your first
online lecture. If you miss something or uncertain as something
please feel free to go back and review the
materials if you need. I would also like to remind you that although we went through a lot of
information here your text book has even more This lecture was to give you an inside and
highlight on some of the supporting details about
the materials in the book please make sure it take the time to review or at least skim over over
the textbook to get additional information that I
might not have talked about here. If you have any questions about the lecture or
related materials please feel free to contact me so we can get your
questions answered quickly. And with that I’m all done for this lecture and I
look forwrd to seeing you in class again. Have a
great day!

1 Comment

  • Reply zzinzel October 1, 2016 at 8:39 am

    good, well organized

  • Leave a Reply