Articles, Blog

Samurai, Daimyo, Matthew Perry, and Nationalism: Crash Course World History #34

August 8, 2019


Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crash Course World
History, and today we’re going to talk about nationalism, the most important global phenomenon
of the nineteenth century and also the phenomenon responsible for one of the most commented-upon
aspects of Crash Course, my globes being out of date. USS “R” not a country! [Explosion noise.]
Rhodesia? [Explosion noise.] South Vietnam? [Explosion noise.]
Sudan with no South Sudan? [Explosion noise.] Yugoslavia? [Explosion noise.] Okay, no more inaccuracies with the globes.
Ahhh, the little globes! This one doesn’t know about Slovakia [explosion
noise], this one has East-frackin’ Pakistan [explosion
noise] and this one identifies Lithuania as part
of Asia [explosion noise]. Okay, no more globe inaccuracies. Actually,
bring back my globes. I feel naked without them. [theme music] So if you’re into European history, you’re
probably somewhat familiar with nationalism and the names and countries associated with
it. Bismarck in Germany, Mazzini and Garibaldi in Italy and Mustafa Kemal, a.k.a. Ataturk,
in Turkey. But nationalism was a global phenomenon, and
it included a lot of people you may not associate with it, like Muhammad Ali in Egypt and also
this guy [Lincoln]. Nationalism was seen in the British dominions
as Canada, Australia and New Zealand became federated states between 1860 and 1901. I
would say “independent states” instead of federated states, but you guys still have
a queen! It was also seen in the Balkans, where Greece
gained its independence in 1832 and Christian principalities fought a war against the Ottomans
in 1878. In India, where a political party, the Indian National Congress, was founded
in 1885, and even in China, where nationalism ran up against the dynastic system that had
lasted more than two thousand years. And then, of course, there are these guys
[Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito], who in many ways, represent the worst of nationalism,
the nationalism that tries to deny or eliminate difference in the efforts to create a homogeneous,
mythologized unitary polity. We’ll get to them later, but it’s helpful to bring them up now
just so we don’t get too excited about nationalism. Okay, so before we launch into the history,
let’s define the modern nation-state. Definitions are slippery, but for our purposes, a nation-state
involves a centralized government that can claim and exercise authority over a distinctive
territory. That’s the state part. It also involves a certain degree of linguistic and
cultural homogeneity – that’s the nation part. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! By that definition, China was
a nation-state by, like, probably the Han dynasty. Dude, Me From the Past, you’re
getting smart! Yeah, it could be, and some historians argue that it was. Nationhood is
really hard to define. Like in James Joyce’s Ulysses, the character Bloom famously says
that a nation is “the same people living in the same place,” but then he remembers the
Irish and Jewish Diasporas and adds, “or also living in different places.” But let’s ignore
Diasporas for the moment and focus on territorially-bounded groups with a common heritage. Same people,
same place. So how do you become a nation? Well, some
argue it’s an organic process involving culturally-similar people wanting to formalize their connections; others
argue that nationalism is constructed by governments, building a sense of patriotism through compulsory
military service and statues of national heroes. Public education is often seen as part of
this nationalizing project. Schools and textbooks allow countries to share their nationalizing
narratives, which is why the once and possibly-future independent nation of Texas issues textbooks
literally whitewashing early American history. Still, other historians argue that nationalism
was an outgrowth of urbanization and industrialization, since new urbanites were the most likely people
to want to see themselves as part of a nation. For instance, Prague’s population rose from
157,000 to 514,000 between 1850 and 1900, at the same time that the Czechs were beginning
to see themselves as separate from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Which is a cool idea, but it doesn’t explain
why other less-industrialized places like India also saw a lot of nationalism. The actual business of nationalization involves
creating bureaucracies, new systems of education, building a large military, and often using
that military to fight off other nation-states, since nations often construct themselves in
opposition to an idea of otherness. A big part of being Irish, for instance, is not
being English. So emerging nations had a lot of conflicts,
including the Napoleonic Wars, which helped the French become the French, the Indian Rebellion
of 1857, which helped Indians to identify themselves as a homogeneous people, the American
Civil War – I mean, before the Civil War, many Americans thought of themselves not as
Americans, but as Virginians or New Yorkers or Pennsylvanians. I mean, our antebellum
nation was usually called “THESE United States.” After, it became THE United States. So in the U.S, nationalism pulled a nation
together, but often, nationalism was a destabilizing force for multiethnic land-based empires.
This was especially the case in the Ottoman Empire, which started falling apart in the
nineteenth century as first the Greeks, then the Serbs, Romanians, and Bulgarians, all
predominantly Christian people, began clamoring for and, in some cases winning, independence. Egypt is another good example of nationalism
serving both to create a new state and to weaken an empire. Muhammad Ali, who was actually
Albanian and spoke Turkish, not Egyptian Arabic, and his ruling family encouraged the Egyptian
people to imagine themselves as a separate nationality. But okay, so nationalism was a global phenomenon
in the nineteenth century, and we can’t talk about it everywhere, so instead, we’re going
to focus on one case study: Japan. You thought I was going to say Germany, didn’t you? Nope.
You can bite me, Bismarck. Japan had been fragmented and feudal until
the late sixteenth century, when a series of warrior landowners managed to consolidate
power. Eventually, power came to the Tokugawa family, who created a military government,
or bakufu. The first Tokugawa to take power was Ieyasu,
who took over after the death of one of the main unifiers of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi,
sometimes known as “The Monkey,” although his wife called him – and this is true – “The
Bald Rat.” In 1603, Ieyasu convinced the emperor, who
was something of a figurehead, to grant him the title of shogun. And for the next 260
years or so, the Tokugawa bakufu was the main government of Japan. The primary virtue of
this government was not necessarily its efficiency or its forward-thinking policies, but its
stability. Stability: the most underrated of governmental virtues. Let’s go to the Thought
Bubble. The Tokugawa bakufu wasn’t much for centralization,
as power was mainly in the hands of local lords called daimyo. One odd feature of the
Tokugawa era was the presence of a class of warriors who, by the nineteenth century, had
become mostly bureaucrats. You may have heard of them: the samurai. One of the things that made this hereditary
class so interesting was that each samurai was entitled to an annual salary from the daimyo
called a stipend. This privilege basically paid them off and assured that they didn’t become restless
warriors, plaguing the countryside – that is, bandits. We tend to think of samurai as noble and honorable,
but urban samurai, according to Andrew Gordon’s book A Modern History of Japan, they were
“a rough-and-tumble lot. Samurai gang wars – a West Side Story in the shadows of Edo
Castle – were frequent in the early 1600s.” And you still say that history books are boring. As with kings and lesser nobles anywhere,
the central bakufu had trouble controlling the more powerful daimyo, who were able to
build up their own strength because of their control over local resources. This poor control
also made it really difficult to collect taxes, so the Tokugawa were already a bit on the
ropes when two foreign events rocked Japan. First was China’s humiliating defeat in the
Opium Wars, after which Western nations forced China to give Europeans special trade privileges.
It was a wake-up call to see the dominant power in the region so humbled, but even worse
for the Tokugawa was the arrival of Matthew Perry. No, Thought Bubble, Matthew Perry.
Yes, that one. The Tokugawa are somewhat famous for their
not-so-friendly policy toward foreigners, especially Western Christian ones, for whom the
penalty for stepping foot on Japanese soil was death. The Tokugawa saw Christianity in much the
same way as the Romans had, as an unsettling threat to stability. And in the case of Matthew
Perry, they had reason to be worried. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So the American naval
commodore arrived in Japan in 1853 with a flotilla of ships and a determination to open
Japan’s markets. Just the threat of American steam-powered
warships was enough to convince the bakufu to sign some humiliating trade treaties that
weren’t unlike the ones that China had signed after losing the Opium Wars. And this only further motivated the daimyo
and samurai, who were ready to give the Tokugawa the boot. Within a few years, they would. So what does this have to do with nationalism?
Well, plenty. First off, even though the Americans and the Japanese didn’t go to war… yet,
the perceived threat provided an impetus for Japan to start thinking about itself differently. It also resulted in the Japanese being convinced
that if they wanted to maintain their independence, they would have to reconstitute their country
as a modern nation-state. This looks a lot like what was happening in
Egypt or even Germany, with external pressures leading to calls for greater national consolidation. So the Tokugawa didn’t give up without a fight,
but the civil war between the stronger daimyo and the bakufu eventually led to the end of
the shogunate. And in 1868, the rebels got the newly-enthroned
Emperor Meiji to abolish the bakufu and proclaim a restoration of the imperial throne. Now
the emperor didn’t have much real power, but he became a symbolic figure, a representative
of a mythical past around whom modernizers could build a sense of national pride.
And in place of bakufu, Japan created one of the most modern nation-states in the world. After some trial and error, the Meiji leaders
created a European-style cabinet system of government with a prime minister, and in 1889,
promulgated a constitution that even contained a deliberative assembly, the Diet, although
the cabinet ministers weren’t responsible to it. Samurai were incorporated into this system
as bureaucrats and their stipends were gradually taken away. And soon the Japanese government
developed into, like, something of a meritocracy. Japan also created a new conscript army. Beginning
in 1873, all Japanese men were required to spend three years in the military. The program
was initially very unpopular – there were more than a dozen riots in 1873 and 1874, in
which crowds attacked military registration centers. But eventually, serving in the army created
a patriotic spirit and a loyalty to the Japanese emperor. The Meiji leaders also instituted
compulsory education in 1872, requiring both boys and girls to attend four years of elementary
school. Oh, it’s time for the Open Letter? An Open Letter to Public Education. But first,
let’s see what’s in the Secret Compartment today. Oh, it’s a graduation hat. Thanks, Meredith the
intern, for letting me borrow your graduation hat. Dear Public Education, When you were introduced
in Japan, you were very unpopular, because you were funded by a new property tax. In
fact, you were so unpopular that at least two thousand schools were destroyed by rioters,
primarily through arson. Stan, it doesn’t look good when you bring
it in close like that. I look like a 90-year-old swimmer. And even though public education has proved
extremely successful, lots of people still complain about having to pay taxes for it,
so let me explain something. Public education does not exist for the benefit
of students or for the benefit of their parents. It exists for the benefit of the social order.
We have discovered as a species that it is useful to have an educated population. You do not need to be a student or have a
child who is a student to benefit from public education. Every second of every day of your
life, you benefit from public education! So let me explain why I like to pay taxes
for schools, even though I don’t personally have a kid in school. It’s because I don’t like
living in a country with a bunch of stupid people. Best wishes,
John Green. In Japan, nationalism meant modernization,
largely inspired by, and in competition with, the West. So the Meiji government established
a functioning tax system, they built public infrastructure like harbors and telegraph
lines, invested heavily in railroads and created a uniform national currency. But the dark side of nationalism began to
appear early on. In 1869, the Meiji rulers expanded Japan’s borders to include the island
of Hokkaido, and in 1879, they acquired Okinawa after forcing its king to abdicate. In 1874, Japan even invaded Taiwan with an
eye toward colonizing it, though they weren’t successful. And in these early actions, we
already see that nationalism has a habit of thriving on conflict. And often, the project
of creating a nation-state goes hand-in-hand with preventing others from doing the same. This failure to imagine the other complexly
isn’t new, but it’s about to get a lot more problematic, as we’ll see next week, when we
discuss European imperialism. Thanks for watching. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. We’re ably interned by Meredith Danko and
our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Raoul Meyer: Also, the show was written by
my high school history student, John Green, and myself, Raoul Meyer. John: Last week’s phrase of the week was “bearded
Marxist.” If you’d like to guess at this week’s phrase of the week or suggest future ones,
you can do so in comments, where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will
be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in
my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome!

100 Comments

  • Reply Someone you don't know December 6, 2018 at 2:03 am

    Nation state is a social construct and an excuse for discrimination. Except for Ghandi. He was a cool nationalist. Nationalism was a major factor in ww1 and 2

  • Reply Fidei Defensor December 8, 2018 at 11:47 pm

    The Commonwealth realms are fully independent countries. The Queen of the United Kingdom just happens also to be the Queen of Australia, Queen of Canada, etc.

  • Reply Ercan Er December 10, 2018 at 8:51 am

    Teacher Raul is really a cool guy, but your place in hearts is different John Green

  • Reply Jennia Fredrique December 13, 2018 at 9:05 pm

    i love you channel but fyi when you do the open letter you can see someones legs and a c stand. 🙂

  • Reply Ross from Texas December 14, 2018 at 12:10 pm

    Nationals are still Nazi

  • Reply andrew smith December 19, 2018 at 6:14 am

    arent you trying to help us understand nationalism? Im here watching this so i dont fail a class tomorrow, and when you're talking that fast it doesnt help. i mean some stuff i heard but its hard to remember it all. still thanks for this video, really appriciate it

  • Reply mojotheaverage December 22, 2018 at 8:48 am

    My lord, John is incorrectly pronouncing Japanese names! Shameful display!

  • Reply Quinn Newman December 27, 2018 at 1:55 am

    japan destroying schools? really?

  • Reply The Sorcerer of Apollo December 28, 2018 at 9:44 am

    WITHOUT THE GOVERNMENT EVERYONE WILL BE STUPID!!!!

  • Reply Nakul Raghav December 30, 2018 at 7:45 am

    Made some videos on physical geography please

  • Reply M R January 2, 2019 at 7:04 pm

    I just finished my master's in US history but am watching these videos to brush up on my world history knowledge for my teaching certification exams. I have never read the comments before but knew I had to for this video for the Matthew Perry comments– did not disappoint!

  • Reply Delaney Garay January 3, 2019 at 1:33 pm

    You forgot Camillo Cavour in the Italian nationalist movement.

  • Reply kings fun January 5, 2019 at 8:04 pm

    "I don't like living in a country with stupid people." Truer words have never been spoken.

  • Reply Prashant rawat January 6, 2019 at 1:22 pm

    explain germany

  • Reply stephan W January 10, 2019 at 9:37 am

    Nationalism is the best
    System we have ever had.

  • Reply Mattox Lemley January 14, 2019 at 12:46 am

    BISMARK!

  • Reply Kurffy January 23, 2019 at 12:48 pm

    Ayy I saw that Okami refference

  • Reply TAYLOR MORSE January 24, 2019 at 9:55 pm

    9:56 look at the fireplace

  • Reply Lornext January 27, 2019 at 3:50 am

    Without nationalism there can be no true prosperity. You can try to fight your nature, but you will eventually lose.

  • Reply NHK January 28, 2019 at 12:47 am

    – nationalism? glorified modern tribalism.
    – public education system? not so much to make people smart, but mainly to train to integrate and condition them into the system for the benefit of the system

  • Reply JOAQUIN NICHOLAS SORIANO January 29, 2019 at 4:52 pm

    "OUWAH MEN HAVE RUNNING FROM TEH BATTERFERD! A SHAMEFUR DISPRAY!"

  • Reply Joe Watson January 30, 2019 at 5:29 pm

    I need clarification on the statement, "Public education is often seen as part of this nationalizing project. Schools and textbooks allows countries to share their nationalizing narrative, which is why the once and possibly-future independent nation of Texas issues textbooks literally whitewashing early American history." Give an example. I think your left view is mistaken. Many of the textbooks issued in Texas are published by McGraw Hill out of Columbus, Ohio. Texas does not have its own "school textbook publisher", but maybe we should.

  • Reply Melyssa Hawes February 1, 2019 at 2:16 am

    all of them are wrong with eSwatini now lmao

  • Reply k n February 3, 2019 at 4:36 pm

    Modern Japanese nationalism was born when western countries forcibly tried opening up Japan

  • Reply Ciaran McIntosh February 4, 2019 at 7:28 pm

    Do more videos on Japan

  • Reply Dark Rainbow February 5, 2019 at 7:06 am

    I don’t like living in a country full of stupid people either. It’s awful.

  • Reply Joshua Cooper February 5, 2019 at 11:12 am

    So nationalism is the idea that? What im rlly confused

  • Reply Iɴdι V. February 9, 2019 at 1:25 am

    this guy talks too fast i just want to pass high school man

  • Reply Rizzo RIZZO February 9, 2019 at 7:35 pm

    Hey, Japan, lemme get a dime, yo.

  • Reply Turmoil February 9, 2019 at 10:00 pm

    I don't think that's an entirely fair definition of nationalism. here's a short explanation.

    1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity
    2) the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self-determination.

  • Reply Inquisitor Barca February 10, 2019 at 9:07 am

    Sine ira et studio.

  • Reply Ramiro Castellanos Barrón February 10, 2019 at 11:01 pm

    Yoo, this dude looks like Bernaard from Megamind

  • Reply michael88h February 11, 2019 at 1:27 am

    Pretty amazing Japan went from being way behind in modernization to the most modernised country by the 1930s

  • Reply Timathy Wilson February 13, 2019 at 3:56 am

    Unfortunately education can lead to a bad end aristocracy or communism

  • Reply Armen Gavin February 14, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    Don't do it…

    Ha you did it nurd g3t r3kt now you have bad luck unless you like my comment

  • Reply Alchemist Cardona February 16, 2019 at 9:42 pm

    S u N r I s E l A n D

  • Reply C. Onyeukwu Onwukwe Jr. February 20, 2019 at 1:28 am

    A nation must have its roots in the Natural environment.

  • Reply Abhishek Rajesh Rao February 20, 2019 at 11:21 am

    I have the same T-shirt u r wearing

  • Reply KCI investments February 26, 2019 at 11:35 am

    These videos are too fast because there is too many irrelevant descriptions and examples which are included, even though most part is relevant I watch the videos at a 0.75 speed just to avoid a headache.

  • Reply Lloyd Joseph February 28, 2019 at 2:33 am

    Wait, I'm from texas!? What!?

  • Reply Jew Shirls March 9, 2019 at 7:46 pm

    Nationalism: "Being proud of something you've never done and hating people you've never met"

  • Reply ThatsWaaack March 11, 2019 at 8:16 pm

    bruh

  • Reply Anonymous Identity March 11, 2019 at 10:37 pm

    Change the speed to 2x I Dare You

  • Reply Zareenah Ausaihn March 13, 2019 at 4:42 pm

    Could you please make a video on the Sino Japanese War
    …or if you could summarize it for me??
    Thank you

  • Reply Spark of Sirius March 14, 2019 at 11:35 pm

    Can’t stand this guy.

  • Reply Everest Gamer March 21, 2019 at 5:18 am

    Wow, they referenced Okami at 6:02

  • Reply Hanting Li March 22, 2019 at 3:24 am

    so what are some differences of extreme nationalism between germany and japan after ww1 and before ww2?

  • Reply Evelyn Chang March 28, 2019 at 4:33 pm

    Yeet

  • Reply Fellow 9yr/o March 30, 2019 at 1:53 pm

    Raoul face Revealed!!!😊👍

  • Reply Naby Bharath April 5, 2019 at 10:56 pm

    What does the image @2:40 refer to?

  • Reply Public Enemy April 6, 2019 at 2:45 pm

    What happened to Rhodesia

  • Reply Public Enemy April 6, 2019 at 2:48 pm

    Blood and soil.

  • Reply Josh Jones April 15, 2019 at 6:34 am

    Best dorkiest intro I’ve seen in decades

  • Reply James Pak April 17, 2019 at 7:55 pm

    "So let me explain why I don't mind paying taxes for public education even if I don't have a kid in school….it's because I don't like living IN A COUNTRY FULL OF STUPID PEOPLE!…" Well, you may have to move to another country now 🙁

  • Reply KEBI Photography April 18, 2019 at 12:11 am

    9:29 You can see the tripods of the cameras in the glass in front of the fake fire.

  • Reply na me April 18, 2019 at 5:19 pm

    I miss him. So relevant in 2019.

  • Reply Bones April 21, 2019 at 9:16 pm

    anyone else listen to this channel at 0.75 speed? lol need to take notes

  • Reply Geoff Churchill April 24, 2019 at 8:25 am

    one problem. you don't like living in coutry with stupid people but you live in thr USA…

  • Reply Tamra Cook April 25, 2019 at 7:13 am

    I think Germany would have been a better choice for nationalism. Still you talks are always informative.

  • Reply Bl U April 29, 2019 at 6:14 pm

    You want to pay taxes for schools so that people aren’t stupid?
    You can’t drink yourself sober, buddy.

  • Reply Rachel Huizar April 30, 2019 at 6:03 pm

    What did Nationalism do for most multi-ethnic countries?

  • Reply Darrian Weathington May 1, 2019 at 5:14 am

    I dont care for the fat lazy tokugawa. I wish Nobunaga won instead 😒

  • Reply Alex B. May 1, 2019 at 6:37 am

    When otome games and research makes me feel proud that I know the Japanese stuff… :))

  • Reply Rakasiwiii fiddihaq May 4, 2019 at 5:22 pm

    Shared danger is the strongest bond

  • Reply Alliyah Lara May 4, 2019 at 5:43 pm

    PLEASE HELP!!!! I HAVE A DBQ FOR WHAP AND I NEED ASSISTANCE!!!
    Topic: Analyze similarities and differences in the industrialization of the cotton industry in Japan and India in the period from 1180s to 1930s.

    PLEASE IF ANYONE CAN GIVE ME 2 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES, PLEASE DO SO.
    I got India (because that 's obvious), but I need 2 for Japan.

  • Reply Anand Ranjan May 8, 2019 at 2:32 am

    Your video was great. But it was too fast. Could you please speak a bit slower. It would be great help for me and other non natives.

  • Reply hirou May 8, 2019 at 6:25 am

    AP Euro exam in 12 hrs

  • Reply hannah friedlander May 13, 2019 at 10:41 pm

    Who’s binging all these before the test

  • Reply Karina Gonzalez May 15, 2019 at 9:49 pm

    Nobody:

    Matthew Perry: arrives market Japan

  • Reply Josh Beck May 21, 2019 at 5:33 am

    People are still stupid even with public education…..

  • Reply Michael Tkaczevski May 21, 2019 at 5:33 pm

    Imagine if all wars and independence movements were all orchestrated by the globe industry to sell more globes. Hence, globalists.

  • Reply Elika chloe May 22, 2019 at 3:45 am

    hi i’m from texas i would like to confirm the fact that texas has an awful education system

  • Reply ayca kepce May 26, 2019 at 12:06 pm

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk made probably the best definition of nationalism: how happy to one who says he/she is a Turk. It does not related with race but community. This definition is combined with a great statement: peace at home, peace in the world. So love your country and people, but dont think you are better than any other. <3

  • Reply ayca kepce May 26, 2019 at 12:08 pm

    i think public education makes people stupid 😀

  • Reply Donny Shields May 27, 2019 at 12:12 am

    4:50

  • Reply Augustus McGovern May 28, 2019 at 6:48 pm

    Ohhhhhh. 🤪 I thought you were gonna try and say ("Friends") that Mathew Perry had an impact on Feudal Japan. (SMDH🤐🙄😵🙊)

  • Reply Justin cool688 May 28, 2019 at 9:42 pm

    The defeat of china in the blank made japan aware that the European nations posed a threat please respond

  • Reply illiterate thug May 30, 2019 at 8:33 am

    "I don't want to live in a country full of stupid people…"

    ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

  • Reply Dracon and Dracaena Illyrian Serpent Pair May 31, 2019 at 9:10 pm

    Can u do one about the mohamed ali the albanian who slaughtered both the ottomans and mamluks in egypt! Please?

  • Reply angelica han June 1, 2019 at 12:59 pm

    why did i just realise that one of my favourite authors taught me how the heart works. oh oof that can be taken two ways but it was biology before romance

  • Reply Arron Chang June 3, 2019 at 1:59 am

    homogenous was misspelled as homogeneous

  • Reply Theresa Zheng June 3, 2019 at 10:21 am

    I have a regents in 3 hrs

  • Reply JustHikaru June 8, 2019 at 1:22 pm

    This reminds me of Young Samurai by Chris Bradford.

  • Reply casey gray June 10, 2019 at 2:05 am

    Sadly despite public education, i still have to deal with stupid people. What do?

  • Reply loggyfoggy June 11, 2019 at 2:02 am

    yeet

  • Reply CORTEXAR June 11, 2019 at 2:03 am

    yeet

  • Reply Prod. by JJ Brem June 13, 2019 at 8:41 pm

    Love ya john

  • Reply Phaux Redtail June 18, 2019 at 2:54 am

    What bizaro world do you live in that isn't mostly stupid people?! Bring me there please ;~;

  • Reply Francois Johannson June 20, 2019 at 9:02 am

    Nationalism is just the long goodbye from monarchy. The future are state associations like the European Union and ASEAN.

  • Reply Hywel James June 26, 2019 at 5:17 pm

    I Love this channel but by using western historians to quote the samurai you've lost their authenticity, and most likely their view from Japanese culture, you know the people that lived there?

  • Reply AlwaysABiggerFish June 27, 2019 at 10:47 am

    How do you white wash a majority white country?

  • Reply Adam Collins June 29, 2019 at 3:10 pm

    "We'll get to them later"… and then again in the later part 21 century…. ugh….

  • Reply Jay Smith June 30, 2019 at 4:49 am

    "This globe is out of date, Rhodesia doesn't exist"
    Me inside: 😭😭😭

  • Reply Fish Man July 10, 2019 at 3:55 am

    Or hoosiers

  • Reply Ry Ry July 17, 2019 at 2:22 pm

    I could argue that public schools are creating a false sense of intelligence.

  • Reply Carmen Mencar July 18, 2019 at 6:04 am

    "I don't like living in a country full of stupid people"? Then that country elected the Rotting Orange.

  • Reply Der Messias der Satire July 18, 2019 at 7:35 am

    5:14 Little typo. It's "Ieyasu" not "Iyeasu"

  • Reply Alan Pulodd July 20, 2019 at 3:55 am

    "The project of creating a nation-state goes hand in hand with preventing others from doing the same." That is an interesting idea.

  • Reply Rerno_ 11 July 20, 2019 at 11:34 pm

    Fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast fast I'm saying slow downn

  • Reply gokul balagopal July 28, 2019 at 4:18 pm

    We stood stop having student interest for loan

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