Articles, Blog

Rethinking Civilization – Crash Course World History 201

August 14, 2019


Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crash Course World History, and today we’re going to talk about civilization. Oh, Mr. Green, Mr. Green I have that video game. I like to play as the Assyrians! Yeah, Me From The Past. It was a video game. In fact, it still is a video game; they’ve continued to update it. But, you know, like actual civilization, its best days are probably behind it. So those of you who watched our first series will remember that civilization is a complicated and controversial concept. Like to describe an individual or a group as civilized is to give them a privileged status that they maybe haven’t earned while to call someone uncivilized is an insult, right? And according to the usual mythology about civilizations, there are these uncivilized barbarians often from the hills or the forest or the steppe and they realize the benefits of settled agriculture and give up their barbaric ways to settle in the valleys, eventually assimilating into civilized society. That’s a really neatly packaged story, right? People all around the world come to the same realization and they all make progress and become civilized, but what if it’s not actually true? So today a little something for the anarchist historians among you. We’re going to look at The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia by James Scott. Scott argues that our view of hill people as primitive, tribal barbarians has it all wrong, and he calls into question much of what we assume about civilization. So as you know, here at Crash Course History we like to approach history from many different perspectives because history isn’t just about what happened, it’s also about how we think about what happened. So here you go anarchists, we are finally going to address your burning suspicion that civilization does not actually require a state. So long time Crash Course viewers will remember that many of the early civilizations were founded in river valleys, probably because the rivers brought water and made agriculture easier and more predictable. You know, you got the big 3: ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley civilization- all near river valleys. In fact, one of them is named after the Indus River, and because the land was so fertile for agriculture, you could finally have large, concentrated populations because there was a food surplus. Everything that we associate with civilization — from the idea that different people can have different jobs to this video camera — all a result of food surplus. Because if some people couldn’t create enough food for all people, then, like, all people would be very focused on getting food. Having a food surplus was a huge change compared to like the first 100,000 years of humanity when everyone was a hunter-gatherer. Food surplus led to population growth and population concentration which led to states and what we tend to call civilizations which are characterized by good things like writing and arts and grocery stores, so that’s the traditional narrative, but I’m not sure that it’s the whole story. Let’s go the Thought Bubble. Now we might equate civilization with high culture, but historically it’s probably more accurate to equate it with state control. The Han Chinese who were a pretty successful civilizing empire back in the day, wrote of barbarians as people who were beyond state control. Some of these so-called barbarians were pastoral nomads whose raiding posed a genuine threat to the Chinese, but others were people who lived in the hills. So the opposition of civilized agricultural societies living in the valleys and barbarian hill people is as old as, you know, like, the hills. And one of the earliest and most famous examples of the town vs. country debate is the Epic of Gilgamesh where Enkidu, the wild man from the hills, goes to town, spends seven days with a prostitute, joins civilization and becomes Gilgamesh’s best friend. In Southeast Asia, the story that hill people were dazzled by civilization and joined up circulated as well. Here, though, the civilizing force was the reading of religious or philosophical texts. But more important than either access to Classical age texts, or civilizing experiences in the city, was that civilizations were based on settled agriculture and were associated with states. In a way, it can be argued that without a state, there’s no such thing as a barbarian. But because we live in states, we tend to think that they are A) Necessary B) Timeless, and C) overall a pretty good thing, and almost all civilizations are associated with states, like ancient Egypt, or China in the remote past or France if you’re into Western civilization. Thanks Thought Bubble. I mean it’s telling that the Mongols were arguably the greatest conquerors of the premodern world, but we usually don’t call them a civilization. They weren’t just agriculture-y and state-like enough. Although of course the Mongols being the Mongols, there is an exception to the rule: the Mongols DID settle in a recognizable state in Yuan China. Ughhh, history, even your exceptions have exceptions. So when we talk about states, we need to remember that it’s pretty common for the creation of states to involve some form of coercion like in ancient, and sometimes, not ancient societies, the power of the state rested primarily on two things – the army and taxes. And if you want to create an army or raise taxes, or both, it’s helpful to have a sedentary population that spends most of its time producing food because food is very valuable to a state. I mean, while gold and palaces are beautiful, you can’t feed them to your army. Anyway, agricultural production and the creation of states are deeply intertwined. Agricultural surplus and control over it leads to other aspects of civilization like property rights and patriarchy. Well, I guess it doesn’t have to lead to patriarchy, but it usually has. So while states rely on the exploitation of agricultural labour and the subjugation of their citizens, then the civilization narratives that barabarians were drawn to civilizations by their obvious superiority is kind of problematic. Because there’s a big downside to all that state control and taxes and conscription and servitude. And this leads us to James Scott’s big idea that rather than primitive hill tribes being attracted to the glamour and stability of valley settlements, hill cultures are formed by people running away from civilization; basically, Scott argues that people flee to the hills because it makes it hard for states to find and conquer them. The Arab historian, Ibn Khaldun remarked that Arabs can gain control over flat territory and do not pursue tribes that hide in the mountains. Then you have the Franco-Hungarian military officer, Baron de Tott, poetically exclaiming that “The steepest places have always been the asylum of liberty”, but the great French Historian Fernand Braudel probably summed it up best when he wrote, “The mountains as a rule are a world apart from civilizations which are an urban and lowland achievement. Their history is to have none, to remain always on the fringes of the great waves of civilization…” And you may have noticed from the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan to people in Colorado with their legal marijuana, it’s still kind of difficult for states to control hill people. This idea turns the civilization narrative on its head. Hill people are not barbarians waiting to become civilized. They’re refugees from civilization itself. And this brings up the possibility that life in the hills is actually better than settled agricultural states with their wars and taxes and forced labor. Furthermore, cities and settlements breed epidemic diseases and when the next Spanish flu comes for all of us, it’s going to be good to be in the mountains. That said, I’m not a 100% sold on the argument, which is why I’m living in very flat, very civilized Indianapolis. I mean, as I said earlier, without agricultural surpluses, we wouldn’t have the Internet, which I’m fond of, also I have tried the hunter-gather paleo diet and it did not suit me. I like Doritos. Stan just told me that the paleo diet is not in fact, the diet the people of the hills have, apparently the kind of agriculture they used was called swiddening? It means shifting cultivation, and apparently it’s great because it provides a more varied diet with less effort. Score another one for the hill people. Maybe I’ll try to popularize the swidden diet. Ohhh! Time for the Open Letter! Oh my God, the new globe opens and food comes out of it!! Is it my birthday? Man, I love our new globe! Anyway, an open letter to fad diets. Dear fad diets, you know what doesn’t work? Eating unheathily. You know what does work? Eating healthily. Your noble prehistoric heritage as a scavenger has prepared you to eat anything. Anything that is food. So the idea of eating only one kind of food is just sort of inherently ludicrous. I mean the average freegan is literally healthier than I am, and they just eat whatever is in the dumpster. In short, fad diets, eating discarded food is much more in line with most of human history than the paleo diet. Best wishes, John Green. All right, so far, much of what I’ve said can be applied to hill people from all over the world at various times, but the focus of Scott’s book is the region of upland Southeast Asia and southern China that he calls “Zomia.” Zomia is mountainous and jungle-y and home to between 80 and 100 million people. It’a a little hard to conceptualize because we’re so used to thinking of history in terms of states, and this region is, to quote him, “relatively stateless.” Zomia was at least partially created by slavery actually because flight from slavery is one of the main reasons that people head for the hills. According to Scott, “Southeast Asian states were slaving states, without exception, some of them until well into the twentieth century. Wars in pre-colonial Southeast Asia were less about territory than about the seizure of as many captives as possible who were then resettled at the core of the winner’s territory.” I can just hear all you Crash Course viewers saying, “Wait, is there any evidence that any of that is true?” Kinda… But like if one of the main reasons people create hill cultures like Zomia is to avoid civilizations and one of the hallmarks of civilization is writing? Then, it stands to reason that there won’t be much written evidence from Zomia, as writing is kind of like the bread and butter of traditional history. Off-topic, but bread and butter is really no longer the staple of any diet. We should really change that to phrase like the Doritos Locos Tacos and Chipotle burritos of traditional history. So the evidence that we can look at is flawed because it’s mainly what other people have written about Zomians and their hill-dwelling brethren. Like this Portuguese friar Father Sangermano wrote around 1800 that the people of the area, quote, “Unable any longer to bear witness to the heavy oppressions and continual levies of men and money made upon them have withdrawn themselves from their native soil, with all their families…” So basically, he thought, at least, that they were leaving because of conscription and taxes you know, hallmarks of civilization. And then there are also later colonialists like Sir Stamford Raffles who, despite his name, was not a clown. He was the founder of British Singapore. Here’s what he said about colonial rule in Indonesia: “Here I am the advocate of despotism. The strong arm of power is necessary to bring men together and to concentrate them into societies… Sumatra is, in great measure, peopled by innumerable petty tribes subject to no central government…” “At present, people are as wandering in their habits as birds of the air, and until they are congregated and organized under something like authority, nothing can be done with them.” Raffles there makes an accidental but pretty damning indictment of civilization to say that the reason that people exist is so that something can be done with them. Now admittedly this isn’t particularly strong evidence, and it doesn’t touch on pre-modern history or the state formation activities of Southeast Asian rulers. But if Europeans’ attitudes and activities drove some people to the mountains, it’s possible that earlier rulers, especially if they founded their states on war and slavery, and we know in many cases that they did, that they may have had a similar effect. So can we finally conclude that hill people as well as nomads and other cultures that attempt to live outside the state structure are not primitive people left behind by civilization, but those who have made a conscious choice to avoid it? Well, in the absence of extensive written records, we call history “anthropology.” That’s a joke for all the anthropology majors out there. And a number of anthropologists have suggested that people who live separate from our ideas of civilization did indeed make that choice consciously in a wide variety of situations. Like in his book Society Against the State, Pierre Clastres argues that the so-called primitive Amerindian societies of South America were not in fact ancient societies that had failed to invent settled agriculture or state forms, but previously sedentary cultivators who abandoned agriculture and fixed villages in response to the effects of conquest. So are all these stateless, social orders finally a response to civilization or just people who haven’t realized the bounty of civilization yet? I don’t know, and studying history isn’t really about providing answers. It’s about providing context. The question of what’s the best and most just way to organize our social orders is a big question and a very old one. But it’s something we still need to be asking because we’re all still making choices about how we’re going to organize ourselves into communities. Scott’s idea of Zomia introduces us to a different way of thinking about things, and equating civilization with coercive state control calls into question the idea of what it even means to be civilized. But I’m not enough of an anarchist to let this episode go without acknowledging the extraordinary accomplishments of civilization, not just agriculture but every thing from antibiotics to the ability to be connected to people who live half a world away from you. The deep and growing interconnectedness among humans has its risks for sure, but it also provides tremendous opportunities. We can collaborate, we can play each other in FIFA, and we can also do THIS together. But then again, there’s an extraordinary freedom to Zomian-style social orders, and vitally, their way of life is far more sustainable than ours. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is made with the help of all of these nice people, and it exists because of your support at Subbable.com. Subbable is a voluntary subscription service that allows you to directly support Crash Course, so we want to say thank you to all of our Subbable subscribers, and thanks to every one who watches Crash Course. I hope that you enjoy our World History series. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome.

99 Comments

  • Reply Kris June 20, 2018 at 5:00 pm

    Thanks, I'll go live on a hill now

  • Reply Yubi K. June 30, 2018 at 7:40 am

    Civilization is such a broad term. It shouldn’t have a narrow definition.

  • Reply bea haxby July 16, 2018 at 2:09 pm

    Why is the last video of the World History playlist labelled #42 and the first video of the World History 2 playlist labelled #201? Where are the 159 videos in between? Or why does it jump like that?

  • Reply Pangasauras July 18, 2018 at 12:27 am

    I just got to THAT PART in Looking For Alaska. John Green, you murdered me on the inside.

  • Reply Pam Sheehan July 20, 2018 at 6:33 pm

    Ummm…the Inca and their related cultures were a mountain/hill civilization…not fleeing civilization.

  • Reply Luis Aldamiz July 21, 2018 at 3:57 pm

    Very good, John Green. I've been critical of some other videos but this one was very good indeed, you even mentioned Zomia!

  • Reply Beelzeboss From Kickapoo July 25, 2018 at 10:26 pm

    The Huns

  • Reply Carmen Mencar July 30, 2018 at 3:59 pm

    That tacco looked amazing

  • Reply Lailani Corrales August 1, 2018 at 9:01 am

    The Chocolate Hills From the Philippines

  • Reply Eric B August 5, 2018 at 4:07 am

    Its illegal to not be part of the hive… "Land of the free"… F### Socialists

  • Reply Eric B August 5, 2018 at 4:10 am

    Id escape civilization if I could, but it's illegal…

  • Reply MariaS August 16, 2018 at 10:50 am

    Do you have a list of sources used in this video? I'm writing a paper on a similar topic right now and would really appreciate it! 🙂

  • Reply Lennyin Hernandez August 22, 2018 at 9:58 pm

    Miss berrios anyone????

  • Reply Earth's Army August 22, 2018 at 10:34 pm

    Anarchy! Errm.. Communism? No no, that won't work.. hmmmm… =~=

  • Reply Cullen Slim Brown August 24, 2018 at 1:55 am

    Finally anarchists!!!

  • Reply Kaelie 3399 August 24, 2018 at 11:39 pm

    History is my least favorite subject I'm here bc I have to be 😭😭 why do people watch this for fun?

  • Reply Quinn Thurtell August 29, 2018 at 2:39 pm

    WHITESPLAINING MUCH? You should use your platform to allow people whose cultures have been annihilated because it was seen as uncivilised explain and narrate our history. Contrary to your belief, we know more about this issue and how it affects our lives today than you do.

  • Reply LandonFryes August 30, 2018 at 3:05 am

    what was zombia, according to james c scott? why dud hill culture form? why is it hard to prove that it exists

  • Reply J Munday September 5, 2018 at 10:45 am

    nah shut it civ 5 is amazing

  • Reply yeyzee September 6, 2018 at 8:47 pm

    only here because of whap 🤮🤢

  • Reply iTzJay66 September 13, 2018 at 11:26 pm

    8:36

  • Reply Nicole Haderlie September 15, 2018 at 12:26 am

    His collar pisses me off.

  • Reply apex2000 September 15, 2018 at 3:28 pm

    Bread and Butter still a staple part of my diet! Infact kinda fussy about my butter

  • Reply Dee Wallace September 17, 2018 at 11:58 pm

    What is a civilization?

  • Reply Harpo 225 September 18, 2018 at 12:29 am

    I'm watching this for history class 😉

  • Reply Tronald Dump September 18, 2018 at 5:47 am

    #5000

  • Reply Abby C September 22, 2018 at 12:12 am

    Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar BarBar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar

  • Reply TheAceOfMagic September 25, 2018 at 4:57 am

    How could you! Civ is still amazing!

  • Reply Cody Renegade September 28, 2018 at 2:42 am

    7:59

  • Reply Ellen Midgley September 28, 2018 at 8:27 am

    A good point was brought up in your video on Africa in the first series- some environments just aren't conducive to the development of what we call 'civilization'. I always remember learning about the Indigenous Australians, and how they moved around frequently depending on the availability of fresh water and food, and when they depleted an area, they moved on and allowed it to recover. Each clan had a territory specific to them, but they'd frequently move around inside it. When the Europeans came over and saw this, they assumed the indigenous people weren't 'civilized' and took over…only to quickly realize that European agriculture was not viable here. Despite having an incredibly rich culture and traditions and an incredible knowledge of the land, and fully formed society with history, diplomacy, and even trade agreements (red ochre from central Australia was traded between clans and ended up in the far north), because they didn't have settled agriculture and towns and taxes, they've never been considered a 'civilization'.

    Ooohkay, I'm done.

  • Reply Amy Kaneko September 29, 2018 at 12:53 am

    Omg this helped me so much! Thank you, your videos are sooooooo informative I don’t know what I would do without them!

  • Reply Tianaa October 4, 2018 at 11:26 pm

    1:50

    1:29

    2:53

    4:45

    5:48

    7:41

    8:24

  • Reply Eamonn Hanna October 5, 2018 at 10:04 am

    Im laying on my bed listening to everything he says while drinking from a glass,
    But then Im focused on the derpy faces john green makes whe n I put the glass i front of his face
    BTW his face is REALLY derpy!😂😂😂

  • Reply Samuel Spear October 15, 2018 at 12:33 am

    This idea is central to understanding certain rural cultures of the US and their political motivations. Hill/mountain/desert/plains/bayou folk are descended from people whose life skills were more in line with hunting and gathering than agriculture and engineering. They chose the elements and an incredibly unstable food supply as their tormentor over systemic oppression of the state. These people would much rather die early in a storm or famine than live long lives in a society they believe places restrictions on personal freedom and mobility. Until the combustion engine was adopted and the need for fossil fuels increased, these communities were largely left alone by the rest of society. When the potential for economic exploitation was realized by coastal magnates the already sparse food resources in these areas were destroyed by mining and drilling operations. Education was withheld from these regions by corporate interests who literally owned the towns they operated in and was replaced by fundamentalist preachers who operated much in the same way as European clergy did before the Reformation in that they were the most educated and well-traveled people in the area. Literacy rates in areas such as Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta remain lower than the rest of the US. However it seems that because of our current fixation with white European racism's role in Western history, we ignore the special history of the people of these regions and tend to treat them with disdain and contempt even though they too were disenfranchised by the same forces that physically relocated Africans and destroyed indigenous American societies for the same goal of economic exploitation.

  • Reply AlexDjag October 15, 2018 at 1:52 pm

    THE MONGOLS!!!

  • Reply Александр Золотарев October 16, 2018 at 9:52 pm

    Why Crimea is under Russia? (8:37)

  • Reply Олень Топовый October 19, 2018 at 9:56 am

    Yeah, libertarians.

  • Reply Олень Топовый October 19, 2018 at 10:12 am

    Government is not needed to live of society.

  • Reply Lumpeenauzer October 25, 2018 at 4:01 pm

    То чувство, когда ты русский и узнал, что Джон Грин писатель, а не просто чувак-историк с ютуба.

  • Reply Поток October 29, 2018 at 2:40 pm

    Great video! Please, check colour s of your world map – Crimea belongs to Ukraine and temporary occupied, but not belongs to Russia. Thanks

  • Reply flamephlegm November 4, 2018 at 8:31 am

    This is one of the better Crash Course episodes. I like how you delve into grayer more theoretical issues, though your strength (across subjects) tends to summarizing the generally accepted truths of each discipline.

  • Reply Jackson Mccreery November 5, 2018 at 12:58 am

    "mesopotamia, the indus river valley, and egypt" what about the Mississippi River Valley and China's Yellow River, JOHN?

  • Reply Leonard Vong November 5, 2018 at 4:18 pm

    You slow down your speaking speed now, a bit hard to get used to. Fast speech does make me more focused. 🙂

  • Reply Nirjhar Mazumder November 7, 2018 at 1:06 pm

    "Best days of civilization is the days behind it "..?? I was thinking the civilization is getting better..

  • Reply Dregge1 November 9, 2018 at 10:18 pm

    Gotta love when people who know nothing about diet start talking about diet.

  • Reply hitesh jetwani November 14, 2018 at 2:08 pm

    I play the game too as Japan

  • Reply Patricio Ramos Catalá November 15, 2018 at 7:30 pm

    You should make a crash course anthropology!

  • Reply Ayden Pitman November 15, 2018 at 8:18 pm

    hi

  • Reply Felix 3000 November 18, 2018 at 6:46 pm

    Indianopolis-very civilised? Naaah

  • Reply The Neo-Epicurean November 25, 2018 at 2:02 pm

    2:00 – Indus valley civilisations may have been named after the Indus river, but Mesopotamia literally means 'between rivers' too.

  • Reply DevilsAngel 1295 November 30, 2018 at 5:45 am

    So glad someone validates anarchy in a history course. Really warms my heart.

  • Reply Ercan Er December 11, 2018 at 8:17 am

    so you also like wh40k.

  • Reply Korede Aderele December 14, 2018 at 12:21 am

    the question is: whats the balance?

  • Reply Sam Rosenbaum December 18, 2018 at 4:29 am

    I have been waiting four years. But I am now an Anthropology major. And I enjoy your joke!

  • Reply Vítor M. Macedo December 20, 2018 at 2:00 am

    So, barbarians are people that ran away from civilizations formed at river valleys… what about the Inca Empire?

  • Reply Ray White December 21, 2018 at 12:48 am

    You just ALMOST got me to understand luddites… just a little and only almost. Nice work.

  • Reply Gortas December 24, 2018 at 7:20 pm

    One of the technologies that a very large number of people are currently using is the Internet. People who have the internet are using it every day. This is an infinite source of information and today everyone has access to it (those who use the DarkNet).

    Before starting this paragraph, I have to introduce two concepts. Theoretical freedom is our potential, what we can do in theory, but in practice it is impossible. Practical freedom – this freedom is limited to the real situation.

    Most technologies that make life easier for us reduce our level of adaptation to the conditions in which these technologies will be discouraged. So we become dependent on them. I am convinced that such statements are used by the supporters of obscurantism. Consequently, technology increases the level of our practical freedom, but reduces the theoretical freedom.

    So, for example, the Internet allows us to get the information in a few minutes. Imagine a situation where we do not have the Internet, but nobody prevents you from getting the information you need. In this case, you can get any information (in theory), but you will not be able to do it in practice.

  • Reply DJ Rex December 30, 2018 at 12:01 am

    I live on a hill and I am sivolised and yes I know I spelled civelised rong

  • Reply Jfreek5050 December 30, 2018 at 8:36 pm

    The thing about trying to flee from civilization, is that no matter what, once you've built a house for yourself, even in the middle of nowhere, you'll become civilization, because you govern that area.

  • Reply potato psoas January 5, 2019 at 4:27 am

    You have no right to tell people that diets don't work you skinny, unhealthy, brother of a Crohn's disease-having, glasses-wearing, low-testosterone nerd.

  • Reply Sergio Fajardo January 8, 2019 at 7:17 pm

    I love history deeply, and regret to say that those small NOT funny interruptions in the episodes made me stop watching this crash course world history… Can't you do better, John Green? Teach history and leave the jokes for a comedy central special, please…

  • Reply Beau Sigmon January 10, 2019 at 8:48 pm

    I don’t see the point in constantly going on about the vocabulary. We have to harp on the definition of civilization? Love these videos but hate the lectures about how if you are interested in military history or western civilization you have to check your privilege and watch what terms you use to describe things. Always preaching down about how all other cultures are amazing and anything that comes from European or American culture is just some imperialist or racist thing stolen from a marginalized people.

  • Reply AA10 January 11, 2019 at 7:52 am

    john green is a legend

  • Reply August RempelEwert January 25, 2019 at 2:10 am

    Bread is still the staple of my diet.

  • Reply Gandolfo The extravagant January 26, 2019 at 11:58 pm

    Hi, just one thing to say about equating anarchists as being anti-civilization. Anarchists from what I've learned about the movement through reading and other forms of research is not inherently opposed to civilization and can be very pro-civilization in certain instances such as Catalonia. What is more likely is that John is confusing anarcho-primitivists with all anarchists when anarchists in many instances (Chaikovtsii) have been known to form schools and attempt to educate members of the working class and organize labor unions with the name varying depending on the sect. The next statement may be a bit controversial to some but anarchism is generally characterized by an opposition to centralized authority with slogans like "no gods, no masters" and anarchists will talk each other to death over exactly what anarchism is and the best way to achieve the end of a more free society. The 2nd controversial bit is the distinction between groups like anarcho-capitalists and all the other anarchist groups, anarcho-capitalists are opposed to a centralized government where the other anarchist groups spring from the original anarchist movements of the 19th century and are staunchly anti-gov. (centralized state) and anti-capitalist. The anarcho-capitalists by contrast are far younger and sprang into being as a more extreme version of American Libertarianism, which didn't exist until the 1960s. The core tenant of anarcho-capitalism simplified is that problems can all be solved through the free market and use a few principles I'm feeling to lazy to remember right now to explain how this would work. I also have a problem with anarcho-capitalists calling themselves anarchists as anarcho-capitalism lacks the core component of anarchism all the other more widely recognized parts contain, this being the rejection of capitalism. This stems more from a scholarly perspective than actually having any form of stake in this argument as anarcho-capitalism came from a different place than the other sects which branched out from certain figures who founded the philosophy of their branch and building off of the ideas of past anarchist philosophers. A more fitting name would likely be something along the lines of anti-state classical liberalism as anarcho-capitalism bears more similarity to classical-liberalism than it does to anarchism as a whole. I apologize to anyone who read through all of this and if you have a differing opinion, well that's your opinion but I hope this may have inspired you to look more into anarchism from a scholarly perspective and the large amount of literature which has come out of anarchism. Whatever your beliefs I wish you the best of luck.

    Edit: the Chaikovtsii were not a purely anarchist group, although Kropotkin was one of the group's members.

  • Reply Germain February 17, 2019 at 3:28 am

    I'm calling all my Colorado friends "hill people" from now on

  • Reply Kannan Ravinther February 21, 2019 at 3:23 pm

    Civilisation basically means making a sure a group people doing something worthwhile for thier dwelling place according Sir Stamford Raffles.Civilisation benefits are interconnetedness and its con is no guarantee of survival if any disease outbreak happens.

  • Reply Στέργιος Κατσογιαννης March 3, 2019 at 3:10 pm

    00:48 Come on … I was waiting for the Mongols there! Did you sack them?

  • Reply John Murray March 19, 2019 at 5:25 pm

    Thank you!

  • Reply Chat Bhakdibutr March 26, 2019 at 9:32 am

    5:35 in the subtitle, "barabarians". lol

  • Reply You_know_who March 31, 2019 at 7:31 pm

    Do the Spanish civil war

  • Reply Buchanan Winchester April 11, 2019 at 9:51 am

    The hills being the Chocolate Hills lol

  • Reply DSAK55 April 12, 2019 at 4:14 pm

    Hillbillies are barbarians

  • Reply Andrew Horton April 21, 2019 at 6:56 pm

    Naaaaah, Civilization 6 is outstanding. I'd hoped that y'all would appreciate some of the cool stuff the Civilization series does with history.

  • Reply Himesh Wagh April 22, 2019 at 6:20 am

    Civilization has reached a state where democracy is tried to be understand and mastered with the passing away of volumes from age of empires, are civilisation come to end due to downgrading of values of the inhabitants of its society,though history tells most civilisation having central authority have come to end with invasion or internal political upheaval,bible has told the fall of many civilisations as God's judgement through prophets on Israel and surrounding nations and empires conquering them due to downgrading of society values those condemned in the old testament all written about every nation social moral degradation, could Rome have fallen for such reasons that everyone Roman citizen were engrossed in their orgies that security was failed to observe and history gives other reasons overseeing the fundamental root cause, even if a civilisation continues to live in socially degraded state the question is how long and how far will it continue if it believes in its might and not on its wages of sin that is death

  • Reply The Elemental Scientist April 28, 2019 at 1:43 pm

    not a whole lot of anarchism here…

  • Reply Darrian Weathington May 1, 2019 at 6:53 pm

    I dont know John, gold taste kinda nice

  • Reply Pebbles May 3, 2019 at 9:43 am

    "This machine kills fascists" – Antifa

  • Reply John Murray May 10, 2019 at 11:13 am

    Did anyone catch that book at 1:10

  • Reply sai siddharth May 12, 2019 at 1:56 am

    Lol where's Meredith Danko??

  • Reply DC May 13, 2019 at 12:22 am

    We don't need no stinkin' state!

  • Reply Joseph Balik May 14, 2019 at 1:53 am

    We ballin out on FIFA?

  • Reply twat tweet May 15, 2019 at 12:09 pm

    All the dislike coming from people not getting a 5 on whap only watching crash course history only

  • Reply pmstavros May 21, 2019 at 12:34 am

    This is a priceless video. I hope it never goes away!!!! Bravo.

  • Reply Mockingbirds May 26, 2019 at 11:36 pm

    The U.S. has a few version of "hill people" – West Virginia, Colorado and Alaska. But given the cultural descriptions, one might also be tempted to loop in Wyoming & Montana. And these places rather effectively illustrate both the benefits and perils of lawless isolationism.

    Of all these, West Virginia/Appalachia has particularly been exploited by 'civilization' in the past 3 decades, as mass consumerism and the internet 'civilized' even its most backwater regions. As a result, healthcare improved, diets became…Doritoes and McDonalds (people used to garden & cook at home)…obesity became epidemic, preventable disease ran rampant (due to poor quality of schools), the availability of 'jobs' increased, but so did the need for a 'job' – it became harder to live off the land in peace. The corporate colonization by Walmart, Dairy Queen and their ilk led to a resurgence of wage slavery – the very same Appalachians fought off in prior decades when they unionized against the company towns. Now the company towns were owned by big box retailers and fast food joints, and the company stores were the only place you could work and shop because all the alternatives were driven out of business by globalized price structures. "Civilization" presents isolated societies with a new need to participate in an invasive economy, then persuades people to turn around and thank the colonial force for providing them with more jobs. Even when those jobs generally revolve around using locals for caustic manual labour to cheaply extract natural resources and ship them out of the region to more developed parts of the country/world.

    It may be worth noting that all the hill people, except Colorado, voted for Trump…? So lack of education / susceptibility to propaganda (guilible due to lack of exposure to civilization?) is definitely a noteworthy factor in the discussion of pros & cons.

  • Reply hike oganessian June 6, 2019 at 8:57 am

    If interested..All civilization came from The Armenians Highlands. What do other historians say…according to Anthropologist Mitchell S. Rothman regarding the extent  of discoveries and specially on the quality of horse bones proved, According to him, that it was from the Shangavit Armenian 6000 years ago that the culture of that area spread around to the ancient world…Professor Jensen also says.  ‘For almost everything that is known in the Hittite language is Old Armenian in form..Historian Sayce (1845-1933) also consider Hittite and Armenian to be one and the same’.  and Rothman, quoted earlier, said…''All that was known in Mesopotamia came from Armenia and that Armenia is the absent fragment in the entire mosaic of the ancient world's civilization's construction.H.V. Hilprecht(1859-1925) a Clark research professor of Assyriology and scientific director Babylonian expedition at the University of Penn. argue that the Hittite tongue is Armenian and the Hittites themselves were of Armenian stock…according to Ellis (1861)  through language analysis we observe that under the names of Phrygians, Thracians, Pelasgians and Etruscans spread westward from Armenia to Italy and Elis claimed that the closest affinities of the Aryan element are the Armenians ..other historians that agree are..Hellenthal, Busgy, Brand, Wilson, Myers and Falush…let me quote Merrick (2012) All religions are descended from and ancient Vedic cosmology described in the Rib – Veda, originating in Armenia near Mt. Ararat at least 6800 ys ago and the basic concepts of a transcendental mountain extending into space and populated planet Star-gods were developed…he further says…This Astrotheology then migrated with Armenian Aryans to found the Sumerian Ethiopian/Egyptian and Indian civilizations and religions…from Language as  a fingerprint Setyan

  • Reply Aleksander Gamanyuk June 9, 2019 at 10:16 am

    8:38, Crimea is a part of Ukraine. Dear John Green, wtf?

  • Reply noblefjn June 12, 2019 at 6:41 am

    Bread and Butter is no longer the staple of any diet?! WE BRITISH RESENT THAT STATEMENT!

  • Reply Iftekhar Hossain Iftee June 18, 2019 at 3:39 pm

    This is one of the most classic channels I've seen in Youtube.

  • Reply James Morgan June 18, 2019 at 8:01 pm

    Huh. Coming back to this a few years on, CC is a lot more woke than I remembered.

  • Reply SamShe L June 20, 2019 at 12:36 am

    “Shifting cultivation is easier” I wouldn’t say cutting down large swaths of forestry and burning it for farmland with primitive tools easy…

  • Reply Eddie Yi June 29, 2019 at 11:00 pm

    We live in a civilization

  • Reply MisterCharlton July 5, 2019 at 2:11 am

    I wish he talked in detail about the philosophy of history, such as the theories of Oswald Spengler & Sir John Baggot Glubb.

  • Reply Yukihyo July 9, 2019 at 3:04 pm

    When I hear paleo diet I imagine it should be whatever you can find/procure that hasn't been processed

  • Reply Andrei Cristi Moga July 15, 2019 at 6:42 pm

    How about a people frequently retreating to the forests and mountains due to the crapton of invading people crossing their lands, avoiding them and any outsider, developing no written culture or having any impressive architectural projects and surviving this storm. Then the descendants of one of those many invaders claim ancestral right to above people's land, due to scarcity of written records and therefore presuming the original inhabitors didn't exist.
    Romanian feels…

  • Reply Nathan Crouch July 16, 2019 at 2:00 am

    I think I understand why I like Crash Course soooo much 1:History, I looove History 2: Fellow Hoosiers

  • Reply Claire Cook July 22, 2019 at 6:42 am

    I am now unbelievably hungry for Doritos.

  • Reply Mike Zed July 29, 2019 at 7:09 pm

    I love when good thinkers rethink the traditional story telling. I'm sure you are also familiar with Dr. Yual Noah Harari's book, 'Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind', which I loved and enjoyed reading it.

  • Reply PK Cazadores August 6, 2019 at 5:23 am

    This guy is an idiot!

  • Leave a Reply