Energy is undoubtedly one of our most important needs, whose consumption is constantly increasing and will continue to increase in the future. Increasing energy demand, rapid population growth, traffic density, urbanization and industrialization, faulty site selection etc. environmental problems. All over the world, environmental problems have become increasingly popular in recent years and have started to attract public attention. The energy sector, in addition to its indispensability in today’s life, creates environmental problems in production, transmission and consumption stages and causes public reaction. A large proportion of pollutants and greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere originate in the energy sector, namely energy production and consumption, or cycle. Today, energy production in the world is mostly met by fossil fueled power plants, hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. The limited use of fossil-based petroleum, coal and natural gas resources in the world necessitates increasing efficiency in the use of these resources and disseminating new energy resources. Thus, the negative effects of dependence on foreign sources in terms of energy can be reduced. Reducing energy consumption without affecting production and prosperity, ie energy savings, is essential for a stronger and more competitive economy and a less polluted environment. Nuclear energy, which began with the discovery of uranium in 1789 and continued with the disintegration of the atom in 1934, has entered the agenda of politicians, scientists and industrialists. As in many other technological developments, the work started in the field of military defense and then continued commercially. Many countries, especially the USA and Russia, have made intensive efforts to utilize nuclear energy. As a result of these studies, systems have been developed to convert the heat energy released by the disintegration of atoms into electrical energy. These systems, in other words nuclear power plants, ensure that nuclear energy is obtained in a safe, controlled and sustainable manner. The proliferation of nuclear power plants began with the oil crisis of the early 1970s. Countries that do not have oil and other hydrocarbon resources have turned to nuclear power plants to reduce their dependence on these resources and to ensure their security of energy supply. While nuclear power plants were commissioned rapidly all over the world, nuclear power plants continued to be established all over the world, even though there was a relative slowdown with the Three Mile Island (TMI) he. Today, nuclear power plants are preferred by countries because of their unique characteristics. The need for a reliable, cheap, sustainable and accessible energy source with increasing environmental sensitivity makes nuclear power plants more prominent than other alternatives. Uranium, the raw material for nuclear fuel, has spread to different geographies around the world. Nuclear fuel cost is very low in electricity unit cost pricing compared to other energy sources. Therefore, fluctuations in fuel prices do not affect electricity generation costs. In addition, the installation area of nuclear power plants per unit electricity generation is quite small compared to all other power plants. With their security systems, nuclear power plants naturally have an effect of only 1% of the radiation present in our environment. Therefore, settlements, agriculture, fishing and tourism can be carried out alongside nuclear power plants. The world’s most important tourism and settlement centers such as Paris, London and New York are located next to nuclear power plants. Together with the experiences, good examples and developing technology that have been experienced for nearly 70 years, today’s nuclear power plants are known as 3rd generation. 72 hours without external human intervention, cooling, protection against aircraft crashes, passive security systems, digital control rooms, compact equipment and system designs, etc. Many important developments such as nuclear power plants have provided a safer design. As of August 2019, 450 nuclear reactors are in operation in 31 countries and 52 nuclear reactors in 19 countries. Electricity generated in nuclear power plants accounts for 10% of the world’s electricity supply. On a country basis, France accounts for about 72% of electricity demand, 53% for Ukraine, 40% for Sweden, 39% for Belgium, 28% for the European Union, 24% for South Korea, and 19% for the US. meets energy. The question comes to mind. So are the other power plants not safe? Or why do we use nuclear energy? If we examine the damages caused by other power plants to our world: -Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Power Plants Hydroelectric power plants have climatic, hydrological, ecological, socio-economic and cultural effects. Water collection part (dam) of a hydroelectric power plant that has started production has an environmental impact. Climatic effects occur because the reservoir is larger in terms of surface area and evaporation increases. In this way, the humidity in the air increases and air movements change, temperature, precipitation, wind events are different. In this case, the nature vegetation in the region, agricultural plants, water-loving terrestrial animals are in a sudden change and adaptable species survive. The ecological impacts arise as a result of the physical structure of the dam, the migration routes in the water and land environment, the living areas being under water and the disappearance of some important species. -Environmental Effects of Thermal Power Plants Thermoelectric power generation in the most general sense is made of coal, oil and natural gas fuel. The main pollutant emissions generated by the combustion of fuel in thermal power plants are sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides and particulate matter. . These emissions vary depending on the type of fuel used, the composition of the fuel and the combustion technology used. Fuels burn while burning sulfurous compounds. The sulfur-stable compound of sulfur at high temperatures is sulfur dioxide, but a small amount of sulfur dioxide is also formed. Sulfuroxides combine with water to form sulfuric acid. Since their solubility in water is high, they combine with rain droplets and reach the earth as acid rains. In case of storage of fly ash and boiler waste in thermal power plants The leakage of metals or other compounds they contain into rain and water sources or their drifting in the atmosphere by wind causes harm to the environment. -Environmental Effects of Renewable Energy Resources Geothermal energy is generally an environmentally clean energy. However, the boron mineral effluent in the geothermal fluid poses a great danger for agriculture by mixing it with agricultural irrigation waters. Wind energy is a renewable energy source that creates the least environmental problems. Problems encountered can be prevented by proper design and robust installation. The wings reflect the electromagnetic waves and affect the communication and image signals. However, this effect can be substantially eliminated by using fiberglass material instead of metal blades. Since wind turbines are usually built outside of residential areas, noise and image pollution are minimal. The environmental problems created by the technologies that make use of solar energy are insignificant compared to other technologies. The harmful effects of planar collector systems to the environment are almost negligible. However, in some studies, there are situations that may be hazardous to health due to toxic heat transfer fluids or high temperatures. On the other hand, there may be a problem of exposure of workers to toxic substances during the manufacture of solar cells. -Environmental Effects of Nuclear Power Plants Environmental impacts of nuclear power plants
uranium and thorium extraction, fuel preparation, enrichment, production, re-processing, storage and operating life of the fuel used in the dismantling of the reactors. During the extraction and processing of uranium and thorium ores used in nuclear power plants, low-radiation wastes are emitted. The use of some of these wastes as building materials in the past has caused people who live in houses made of this material to be exposed to higher doses of radiation than uranium miners. The greatest possible impact on the environment from nuclear power plants is the spread of large quantities of radioactive material into the environment as a result of an accident. Gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes emitted from nuclear power plants create significant environmental problems. However, the effects of radiation on the environment in the event of an accident vary depending on the severity of the boiler, the type of reactor and the reactor external safety system. If various radioisotopes are emitted as a result of the accident, radiation to the water, soil and air receiving environment affects the environment and human health. Radiation is transmitted to humans both by irradiation and by ingestion of plants and seafood. Radioactive substances (cesium and strontium) have a long half-life (more than 28 years) and accumulate in the human body as they have chemical similarities to the natural elements in the body. What is important here is the good storage and storage of residues that emit a very high level of radiation after the end of the life of the fuel. Compared to all sources, nuclear energy seems to be advantageous due to its high efficiency and low cost. countries where nuclear energy is rich in uranium and thorium are also guaranteed for the future. Although not releasing greenhouse gases is an ecological advantage, radioactive waste is a major disadvantage. but these wastes are disposed of in a controlled manner and are much less harmful than expected. Between 1970 and 1992, 39 workers died in nuclear power plants, 6400 in coal power plants, 1200 in natural gas power plants and 4000 in hydroelectric power plants. In addition, the dose to be exposed to workers working in nuclear power plants is determined by international standards, holidays and permits are adjusted accordingly. of course, although the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants is low compared to other power plants, accidents at these power plants are much more destructive and affect a large area. it is also much more economically burden. So what should we do? To consume less energy for the future of our world.