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Lecture 30 : Crop planning and rotation design in organic system

August 25, 2019

So, I welcome you to lecture 30, Crop Planning
and Rotation Design in Organic System. So, for this ah lecture. So, previous lecture was only introduction
to transitions when you go for the planning for the conversion from conventional to organic
farming, what are the ah organic standards for the ah transition plan you should follow
or the transition the steps you follow for the transition to ah organic farming. So, this lecture will proposing what type
of what are the crop rotations on what type of crops you should select in the transitions. And the next lecture we will be discussed
about the rotation design. So, which crops should be grown at proper
type of crops and the design and the economics of this a conversion to organic systems. So, ah so, the in the crop planning, so, as
we discuss; we will discuss why we go for the crop planning, because if you see the
crop rotations. So, that is an integral part of the organic
farming as we have discussed in the introductory classes, few for the other farming crop rotation. Let us say ah biological cycle soil biological
activity can be maintained enhanced by using the crop rotation. In organic farming, you do not allow to grow
same crops repeatedly year after years or season after seasons. So, reason is that, so there is if you grow
same crops where the repeatedly, then there will be ah more the insect pest and is very
difficult control insect pest and diseases and also that influence the soil quality also
deteriorated. Therefore having a similar crops because they
have the similar rooting systems. They do extract nutrients from the same layers
and the soil becomes less fertile over the years. Ah to have this ones in organic farming go
for the crop rotations. So, same crops should not be grown in a field
year after year. So, there should be crop rotations. So, crop rotation means is a system of growing
different kind of crops in recurrent successions on the on the same lands. So, it may include 2 to 6 different crops
with each crops having particular benefit either financial or environmental; that means,
when you go for the crop rotations. So, you should have the economic impact or
the economic benefit of that crop and also the effect on the environment definitely as
you are growing different crops in a in a sequence. So, there there the compatible crops should
be should be should be chosen. So, they have the ah benefits on the on the
economy and also they have the they maintain the soil health and also environment on long
term basis. The crops may be rotated every year or at
different times in the in the growing seasons, because if you grow same ; some crops may
be they can be grown in throughout the years. They can be grown in different seasons like
the three distinct agricultural season Kharif season, Rabi season and Zaid seas[on]- Zaid
season. You can say a suppose I can take a rice crop
or the corn crop ah, those crops are the conceive in tomato also. So, those crops can be grown ah throughout
the years. So you can grown in ah wet season, you can
grow in Rabi season, you can grown in dry season too. But growing same crops should not be ah done
should not be repeated year after years to in organic farming. Many crop rotation will include a legume;
that means, in a rotations you must see that is a one legume crop is there in the rotations. So, having legume crop in the rotations, so,
there is ah advantages because because it can add atmospheric nitrogen’s you can you
can in the soils by biological nitrogen fixations. It can enhance the soil fertility and at the
same times ah it can minimize the nutrient demand of the subsequent crops can be grown
with less nutrients or less ah resources. Because having a legumes crop in a in the
system. So, so that is a crop rotations may you have
to ah that is a integral part of the organic farming where ah the different crops can be
grown ah to meet the requirement of the farm at the same to have a ah better production
. So, why to rotate crops. So, this is a very simpler simple and already
we ah we know this one why rotate crops. So, according to a cereal legume or legume
having legume cropping systems the enhance soil and water conversations, build soil organic
matter. So, having different crops in the system because,
they have the nutrient removals are also different. Because if you so, have the ah deep rooted
crops with shallow rooted. So, it can maintaining the soil fertility
shallow rooted crops takes nutrients from the shallow layers around twenty centimeters
and the deep rooted crops takes nutrient and water from the deeper less may 40 centimeter. So, that is a balance. So, nutrient the deficit of the the soil can
maintain its own fertility and also build soil organic matter having legumes in the
in the systems provide the weeds, disease and insect control. Because the most of the ah weeds is the same
crop is rotated, the host plant remains same, there is rapid increase in populations. So, having the crop rotation that minimizes
that destroys the the host plants . Having no host plant also this minimizes the population
of the ah pests or the weeds and diseases. They enhance the biological diversity because
having the different type of crops, they have the different bio agents are there ; microbial
organisms are there; that means, that enhances the soil biological diversity having more
number of crops that different root systems different root systems have the; different
microbial affinity in the crops. So, that that have a better biological ah
diversity and also this ensures the economic profitability for the farming systems having
different crops are together. More over you know earlier what happens ah
ah beginning the farmers were going for the mixed farming when there are no intercropping
system, we are going mixed framing. Because ah in a same field, they are growing
different crops; they are growing the ah wheat, they are growing mustard also. Because they having two crops in a same field,
it happens that if there is a ah shortage of resources because in case of the draught
or the in case specially in case of dry land farming dry land area, we go for intercropping
systems. Sorghum pigeonpea intercropping system is
very common in ah semi arid tropic regions where if there is a stress because um the
ah specially for peanut it does not require sorry arhar if you having arhar in sorghum
plus arhar arhar does not require high water more over the deep rooted crops and sorghum
is a shallow rooted crops or the the moderately and moderately deep. But the arhar is a deep rooted crops, they
can have the nutrient demand from the different layer of the soils and arhar can sustain on
the draught conditions. Because having deep rooted, they can take
water or the nutrient from the deeper la[yer]- deeper layers and it in the under dry conditions,
it can it can survive it can survive So, ah having two crops give a give a financial
return assurance the farmers. If some crop fails due to weather abnormalities,
the other crops is likely to give some returns. So, that is what you say the having the rotation,
we say the crop rotation say profitable. You have in a different crops that maintain
the biological diversity soil fertility and ah because soil soil quality is improve with
having different crops in rotations. So, that is that is one of the main component
of organic farming. We must rotate crops .
On a see a the the the right hand side figure, you can you can see here from this the soil
fertility complex in relation to external factors . So, if you see the this is the soil
fertility. How we can maintain a soil fertility? Soil fertility means this is a complex of
this is a soil physical properties, chemical properties, biological properties. The three properties are well developed an
integrated, then you can have the soil as fertile soil the soil structure, soil reserves
and soil life. Soil structures mainly contribute to the the
indicate the physical properties of soils; that means, you are what is the textural class,
structure of the soil, the bulk density, porosity of the soil that indicates that the the the
indicates the the physical properties of the soils means the nutrients supplying capacity
of the soil depends upon the physical physical properties. If the soil has is a bulk density is a ah;
that means, the this is heavy soils having very high bulk density, then they have the
less are the less porosity the nutrient supplying or the water supplying capac[ity]- because
supplying capacity of the soil to the crops will be very very poor. So; that means, the soil bulk dens[ity]- or
the soil physical properties , the soil structure, physical properties soil reserve means the
soil chemical properties soil nutrient status and soil life is here soil microbial populations. Soil is a living body. Soil microbial population and there soil microbial
population population of the soil microbial organisms that depends upon soil structure
and the soil reserves. How much the the physical ambience or the
physical structure is there and what is the soil nutrient available that also determine
the soil microbial population or the soil life. So, these three are integrated because the
to have the nutrient available for the crops smoothly and vary the crop can take nutrient
from the soil. The soil should be good in the physical structure. The good physical properties and have a well
chemical properties are well because they have sufficient nutrients. At the same time, this soil should be reaching
microbial population because the microbial population like the urea or the urea chemical
fertilizer as we discussed the nitrogen is available for the crop in the form of ammonium
form and nitrate form as we discussed earlier class. And to have the ammonium form nitrate form
if you apply the organic ah sources, either the ah ah compost or the farmyard manure. So, they go and mineralize some process there
is a slow mineralization. The organic compounds through mineralization
that converted to the amines, aminos, then then go ammonifica[tion]-, ammonizations,
ammonifications that comes to ah ammonium and then the process of mineralization ammonium
converted to nitrate. And this process of conversion either to the
organic compounds to ammonium form or the nitrate form these are mediated by the microorganisms
like the nitrosomonas bacteria that is involve for conversion of ammonium to nitrite and
nitrite to nitrate by nitro bacter[ia]-. So, these micro organisms, they are involved
in the process of mineralizations from the organic matter to the nitrate for nitrate
the nut[rient]-, the ionic form of nutrient which is required by the crops. So, the life of this the populations of these
a microbes this as a soil life that depends upon the soil structure, physical properties
and the soil reserve the soil the chemical properties of the soils have the nutrient
soil; because microorganism also require nutrient for their own survivals. So, this two if this three are integrated;
that means, physical properties, chemical properties and biological properties are integrated
to know to to to make it as soil health. Soil health means you do not say you cannot
say healthy soil. If soil has high amount of nitrogen, you cannot
say healthy soil ok. It may be high fert[ile]-, but high fertile,
but a short term, but this may not be healthy soils. We can say healthy soils, if the soil has
ah which well build well structured soil has also fertile good ah good amount of nutrients
at the same time it has the required population of microbial populations microorganism. So, that that can help in nutrient availability
for the crops or maybe the high in nutrient ah min[eral]- nutrients for nutrient may not
be available for the crop unless until soil has a good amount of microbial populations
in the soil for the conversion of the the ah the ah either the organic compounds or
the chemical compounds present to the ionic form nitrate form for uptake of the crop. And those the in make a healthy soil, for
the healthy soil depends upon the four components. That you say as soil cultivation ah, soil
fertilizations, climate and the crop rotations. So, we because soil cultivation, we have discussed
how the having a proper cultivation. If you go for the zero tillage or minimum
tillage stubble mulch tillage, we have seen that in organic farming. We go for the minimum tillage and stubble
mulch tillage. So, that you can have a better carbon sequestrations
and you can protect the microbes in the soils better microbial populations and you can have
a better soil fertility having the minimum tillage. And fertilization means you are using no chemical
fertilizers. You are using organic fertilizers, organics
sources so, that ; so, that you can enhance fertility of the soils and climate, how the
climate plays a role in the soil in the soil health. Because you know as there is a climate change. So, as you see because of climate change there
is increasing ah intensity of high precipitation events. In that case, there is a though the loss of
the top soil layers the soil erosions. So, ah that also influence the cli[mate]-
because having the ah high temperature also that cause a the rapid mineralization, then
loss of the carbon as a carbon dioxides. So, that also influence the soil health and
finally, the crop rotations what type of crop you are choosing in the rotations. That also we are as a discussed. We will discussing also in the how the crop
rotation that also influence the soil health. If you see the rotation and soil quality ; if
you take row crops or you take grass and legumes. If you take row crops having more number of
row crops that soil quality declines. If you see this figure, if you go on taking
more number of row crops means your the cereal crops like a rice, wheat and maize; if you
continue in rotational rice, wheat, maize; then that that causes declines in soil fertility. On the other hand, if you take the ah grasses
or the the legume crops like ralph alpha the cover crops you can check. The chickpea or the groundnut legume crops
or the arhar even also or arhar legume crops that suggest the ah the improvement in the
soil fertility or the soil quality improves having the legume crops or the cover crops
rotations. So, having the crops in rotations in organic
farming including the legume crops in the rotations that enhances the soil fertility
and also that minimizes the nutrient requirement of the of the crops in sequence. So, how the ah soil fertility as a quality
production; as a function of crop rotations, if you see the ah if are the crop rotations
having the different crops in a year or in a seasons of different crops. Then that prevents almost the the influence
of the pest and disease populations. So, that is of the as you follow the crop
rotation organic farming as a integral part of organic farming crop rotations. They preventive measure in that case. So, many of the pest and disease populations
are lower or decreased having different crops in the rotations and also that that ah influence
the soil fertility. So, having the less pest and disease and improvement
in soil fertility that gives a healthy healthy crops in that systems and in addition to this
we have the other management. As a fertilizations, we go for the ah what
type of the the nutrient sources you are using or the ah as organic source of nutrients and
the soil cultivation as I discussed. A soil cultivation means you are going for
the minimum tillage ah instead of conventional because conventional tillage that makes a
very the opening of the soil loss of carbon as a carbon dioxides. And having the minimum tillage or you can
say stubble mulch tillage by incorporating the stubbles or crop residue in the soil itself. So, that adds organic matter into soils and
the layers opening of soils, layers emission emission of carbon as a carbon dioxide it
atmosphere that causes a carbon sequestrations. And having the cropping systems and then crop
protections organic way of crop protections and the nature the management; so, that gives
a quality protections. So, crop rotations as a function of crop rotations
as in as a role as a better role significant role in having a the the healthy crops or
the quality quality crops. At the same time maintaining environmental
sustainability having the building the soil fertility and less effects less effect on
the environment. Because environment as we say zero effect
on the environmental, you can say the effect of agriculture on environment can be minimized
having different crops ah in a in a systems as a crop rotation ah. So, ah the crop selections; so, as you see
a this where the crop selections what type of crop we should choose ah when you go for
the rotations. So, there are some of the tips you can follow
ah the when you choosing crops. Follow a legume crops with a high ah ah nitrogen
demanding crops when you go for the rotations. So, initially you can take a legume crops. The legume crop can be followed by the legume
crop is a less nitrogen demanding and the legume crops can be followed by high nitrogen
demanding crops. So, that you can ah minimize the yield loss
of the subsequent crops by having the legume crops earlier, because that fixes atmosphere
nitrogen that make the soil fertility and the nutrient demand external demand of the
subsequent high demanding crops can be reduced ah having a legume crop. Then grow less nitrogen demanding crops in
initial ah phase of the rotation as we are discussing. When you go for the rotations, beginning of
the years the transition of years; the beginning of the transition years, so, choose the crops
require less nitrogen or low nitrogen like leguminous crops or you can take cover crops. You can take chickpea, you can take peanuts. So, these are the the alpha alpha or there
is a lucerne also the cover crops that help in protecting the soil from the erosions and
also building the soil fertility ah, if you have the cover crops at the beginning of the
rotation. Then try to go a deep rotated crops as a part
of rotations; that means, you you should follow because shallow and deep rooted not adjust
soil rooted crops in sequence. So, if you take deep rooted crops, then the
nutrient demand from the top soils and the bottom soils. They become imbalanced. So, that way you can have a deep rooted crops
in the rotations Grow ah the same annual crop for only one
year. Do not repeat the same crops year after year
. Use crop sequence that promote healthier crops the ah healthier the environment, then
use crop sequence that aid in controlling weeds because if you take the like the like
the sorghum example that control many of the weeds against sorghum or the rye in the systems. So, the crops can be chosen that can have
a less ah that can control the weed populations and grows up some crops that will have significant
amount of residue. They can leave the residue in the soil. So, residue can be incorporated in the soils
as a as a organic farming.So, that can add ah nutrients to the soil. So these some of the tips to be ah kept in
mind while going for the crop selections . Then conditions for successful crop rotations
as we say, the the include the use of cover crops to provide the fertility and control
weeds and provide habitat for beneficial insects; that means, the cover crop is a lucerne is
a good cover crops, but it is grow in template climates. But in our case we can go for chickpea. Chickpea also that because the cover crops
means small growing crops that cover the entire land surface and they do not expose the land
surface to the ah atmosphere. In that way they can build as a legume crops,
that can build a soil fertility and they can protect the soil from erosion. If there is a heavy downfall heavy rainfall
having cover crops. So, ah the soil can be protected either from
the water or the wind erosion. Then have a diversity of plants species to
encourage natural predators, discourage pest and disease build up minimize economic and
environmental risk. So, that already I have discussed having the
diversified because rotations usually follow the different crops. So, that you can ah pest populations. We can we can have we can have the crops which
can have we can enhance the provide the feeding materials of the natural predators. So, those type of crops should be chosen;
so, that you can have bio biocontrol biological control of the pest and diseases .
Provide a balance between soil conservation and crop production by adding organic matter
to soil ah to both supply nutrients and improve soil quality properties such as water infiltration
and water holding capacity this is also I have discussed ah in detail. Provide weed control by altering the between
the warm and cool weather plants and including the weed inhibiting plants like the rye and
sorghum the having the crops. Rye and sorghum, they can minimize the population
of weeds in the field . Then what is the common goals of crop rotation? Why we should go for the crop rotations? Usually the ah so, this is the if you see
this point- maintain healthy soil by adding nitrogen and other nutrients in a way that
is environmentally safe and conforms with regulations. So, I buy ah having the crop rotations you
are maintaining the soil fertility ah or by adding nitrogen different source organic source
of nutrients that say ah that maintain the soil fertility that have no effect zero effect
on the environment; that is a environment safe. So, the purpose of these having crop rotation,
if you see the right hand side what is the benefit of this that maintains the biotic
diversity unlock the living potential of the soil. That means having a crop rotations and different
crops ah they can add the nutria[ent]- the nitrogen to the soils. In addition to the the effect is the maintain
the biological diversity biological diversity in the soils and also they are increases the
soil fertility unlock the living potential; that means, more of the microbial populations
living potential of the soils that enhance the soil fertility. So, that is the purpose of having the crop
rotation. If you see that the other purposes is this
one the this left hand side produce nutritious food, it captures solar energy wherever possible,
control insect and pest and diseases and reduced weed pressures. So, these are the some of the ah break the
wilting cycle among the crops in tomato family and the weed pressure for manage the rotation
to confuse the weeds means you have the different type of the crops in rotations. So, disease cycle means the broken; that means,
less disease and the weed also population is also because managed the less weed populations. So, having this in crop rotation with the
with the advantage of having crop rotation the main goal we are satisfying what ? Having
different crops diversify tasks to keep the labor happy and productive all the season
so; that means, having different tasks different activity. In case of the ah you have to go for the pest
or the disease control for physical method or mechanical method, if the light trap ferment
trap and the cards sticky cards, yellow sticky cards those are used. So, doing that so, farmers are involved different
type of activity different activity that gives different type of pleasures to the farmers
that is one diversify tasks keep the labor happy and productive all season. And balance the need of the farm with the
needs of the farmers and develop a spiritual relationship with the land that type of ah
that brings organic farming one type that is spiritual relationship that makes attachment
with the farm and refine the aesthetic quality of the fields and farms. So, this is having this the [nutris/nutritious]
nutritious food, good food, quality foods and healthy environments, less pest, less
disease that makes. So, that that gives this type of the benefits
for this ah for the farm family. And the finally, we are going for the minimizing
off farm inputs by doing the organic farming, we are using only the on farm resources inputs
were recycled minimizing off farm inputs and provide economic stability. So, main main purpose is the increase profitability
having a diverse line of products to market. So, different crops we have. So, different crops, so having the crops to
sending markets not single crop. So, many crops having together; so, that have
a the chance of having the opportunity of having higher profitability in the markets;
So, being in crop rotation . So, so, farm size as we say and and cover
crops and crop rotations the farm size that affects a cover cropping and the management
of the crop rotations. Organic farm plant cover crops to protect
the soil ; soil increase the soil organic matter and improve soil physical properties
already we have discussed. This one cover crops may also provide habitat
for beneficial insects or help the ah remove the weeds that also we discussed. Most expert farmers integrate cover crops
into their fields at every opportunity So, that is what say as a cover crops or the
legume crops, we should have at least one cover crops, legume crops in a rotations. So, any year you have the one cover crops,
it builts soil fertility and they protect the soil from erosions; either water erosion
and wind erosion. So, that should be any expert farmer they
have their intension is to put one cover crop ah. In the in the systems many expert farmers
use a full year cover crops to restore the soil after intensive use of chemical. Because when we go for transition, the first
year they go for only cover crops that is for the large farmers. They have the large farm land and for them
they can ah because because this it does not give any good income actually to maintain
the soil and preparing for the transition preparing for organic. So, first year they can go for only cover
crops whole seasons. So, that the soil fertility can be reached
out, but the farmers have limited acres ah less than 5 acres. Find the ah that including cover crops throughout
the year may be a difficult for them and providing adequate rotation of the crop families on
a given field maybe a challenge. So, in that cases, what they do? They use only beginning of the once once in
maybe cover crops and they have to use adequate amount of the compost or the ah ah mulch mulch
short term winter crops in place of multi season cover crops specially for the small
farmer. They do not go for the whole year as a cover
crops. They can go for the one season cover crops
and they can take other measure to take care of their the soil
And as we discussed then I have the crop selections, what type of crop you should choose when you
go for the transition period of organic farming ah. Usually you should choose the crops of the
low nutrient demanding. So, that you can maintain the yield the because
the you have choose the crops of the high nutrient demanding the yield may not be maintained. So, ranking of annual vegetable based on the
relative nutrient requirement the vegetables or the ah seasonal vegetables as you say the
low nutrient demanding medium nutrient demanding and high nutrient demanding. So, these are the vegetables they are some
examples are given their many ; there is a low nutrient demand is like bean crops beet,
carrot, peas and radish. So, these are the root crops. The root crops, they have the very low nutrient
demand and the bean crops leguminous crops. So, they have the very very low nutrient demand
are you can go here also Checkpea in all many leguminous crops. We can go for checkpea or or or or green gram,
black gram those many legume crops can be grown like beans ah as a legume crops. So, ah like checkpea moong or there is a black
gram, green gram. So, those crops can be grown at the beginning
of the rotations. Those crops require less of nutrients ah mostly
leguminous crops beets, carrots, peas and radish. Those crops require medium amount of nutrient. They can be grown at after growing the low
nutrient demanding, you can we can switch over to medium nutrient demanding crops like
your cucumber, brinjal, pumpkin, spinach, sweet potato, water melon and brassica greens
also. Those greens brassica groups as greens are
they greens vegetable. So, those crops are nutrient demand is medium
slightly higher than the low. So, those crops can be chosen immediately
after the low nutrient for that the the crop yield can be maintained. But those crops are high nutrient demanding
specially the broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, potato, tomato or sweet sweet corn
also cereal crop sweet corn. They are high [netrogen/nitrogen] nitrogen
demand phosphorus and as well as potash demand as we are discussed few crops we have discussed
about the potato we have discussed tomato potato requires huge amount of potash also
tomato also phosphorus and potash So, ah so, also nitrogen for those crops,
we should not choose those crops at the beginning of the transition. If you choose at the beginning at the transition,
there will be severe loss in yield of those crops to avoid those losses. We can choose the these crops at the latter
part the transitions. When this the soil has a because after one
two years, we can choose those crops. So, that the yield cannot be sacrificed there
will be less loss in yield and yield can be maintained as good as organic ah chemical
chemical farming ah by having the crops at the latter part of the transition. So, that is why when you go for the crop planning. During the transition to organic productions,
choose first the ah low nutrient demanding crops followed by a medium, then you can go
for the high nutrients slowly you can transfer to high nutrient demanding crops as you move
during the transition period. And also we can choose crops shallow rooted,
deep rooted, moderately deep rooted and deep rooted and very deep rooted. If you see the crops in a transition when
you go for slitting crops do not choose the shallow rooted followed by shallow followed
by shallow in sequence. So, that can we shallow deep or deep rooted
ah crops. So, that they can nutrient balance the optimum
nutrient balance from the ah from the systems can be balanced balanced like those are the
shallow rooted crops like a rice, onion, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, lettuce, shallow rooted
means 60 centimeter. Those crops should not be grown in sequence
together; rice, onion, cabbage, cauliflower, potato. They should not be grown one after another
because if you grow same crops one after another, then the nutrient demand from the same layer
increases the soil becomes very unsustainable to provide the nutrient demand of the crops. So, likewise these are the moderately deep
rooted crops: groundnut, tobacco, wheat, chilli French, bean, carrot 90centimeter and the
deep rooted crops around 120 centimeter; cotton, maize, sorghum, pearlmillet, soybean, sugarcane,
arhar and very deep rooted crops ah 180 centimeter: safflower, citrus, grapevine, coffee, lucern. So; that means, the you should not grow shallow
rooted, after shallow rooted. You can go for shallow rooted after deep root[ed]-,
after deep rooted or shallow rooted crop should follow deep rooted crop. So, that soil the fertility can be sustainable
to meet the demand of this crop in a cropping systems. So, if you see the schematic summary of the
crop rotation, I will discuss in the crop planning have to go for the crop planning
in the crop rotations. So, in brief we will discuss, then in the
next next level discuss detail about the about the rotation design. See this one ah as you go for the as we discuss
the planning, if you go for planning, what is your goal? That is ah life and the farm goals. If you go for the goal set the goal set the
objectives. So, when you go for the organic farming as
a ah conversion or the transition from the conventional to organic, you first the set
the goals then income goals and income requirements, then you see the market opportunity, then
say production options. So, this so, initially you have to set your
goals, then set your the income how much income you are expecting your target , benefit or
profit output. Then what is the market potential the market
opportunity, then you can have the production options. Production options based on the what is the
resource and the technology availables and the market and. So, this resource and technology that is your
this is your resource and technology that gives a productions; that means, resource
is your labor or the field, crop climate and the equipment ah limits. So, the technologically know how; so, that
gives you a better crop plan based on this the labor, field, crop, climate and the equipment. So, that based on this resource availables
and the technology, so, you can have a have a production options that can production options
that gives you the crop rotation crop mix. You can decide what type of rotation design
you can fix which crop has to be grown and what crop should follow which crops how you
can make a rotation plan rotation design for the organic systems, based on your resource
based on technology, based on the market potential. Then you can take the support from the institutions
as a know how technical know how consultancy can be taken from institution and with this
we can have a crop mix, then match field and the crops. The sometimes there is you can have a alternate
plan also. When you go for any business plan we should
have a alternate plans; that means, the weather and other uncontrollable events. If there is some unforced events that like
weather or something else, then you you can have the looking at the then market opportunity
production options, then you can have a alternate alternate crop plan. So, like wise you can you can have a set your
the plan and set your rotation design based on the the resource available with you the
field what type of climate is there and what ah the technology you have and the market
demand, what where you want to sell your product so; that means, if you do not know where to
sell do not plant it. So, you have to see the market accordingly,
you can have a balance as a mix as a crop mix what type of rotation design you can fix. And once you have the rotation design, then
you you may have one alternate plan also. If there is something unforced event takes
weather abnormal there may be draught, there may be flood problem in that case how we can
tackle the situation that will also some alternate proposal has to be made ready. So, this what the the summary of crop planning
. The many expert farmers do extensive planning you say and record keeping up on paper. So, that is very important when you go for
the record most ah have some from field maps some use computers a few keep all details
in their in their heads. The most of the panel farmers agreed that
farmers should write down their field records and make a plan should be record many of the
key responsibilities and tasks requires reflections and observation as well as informations. So, the chart illustrates the central role
of rotation as we discussed role of rotations ah in the overall farming operation. So, that if if if you go for the rotation
design how you can make a crop plan you should keep in mind what is the resource what technology,
what market you have; then accordingly you can make a crop plan and go for the implementation. So, this is how so, different as example of
crop rotation in India. Different type of crops we have the root crops,
we have the cereal crops, we have the ah legume crops, you have the fruits and you have the
ah brassica ah brassica family . So, different type of crops legumes. So, those crops can be rotated in a system
so, that ah you can you can maintain the soil fertility you can you can maintain a better
soil soil health, you can have a better quality of produce and you can have a better environment
to live in. Thank you very much.

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