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Lecture 2: Organic Farming: Introduction and Status

August 13, 2019

So, welcome for the second lecture the status
of uh Organic Farming. ah
As we see the ah the fruits, vegetables or the organic products other products which
have the share in organic markets, so most of the fruits and vegetables the highest share
around 40 percent, followed by beverages 16 percent, dairy and eggs 15 percent, breads
and grains 12 percent, packaged foods 8 percent condiments 4 percent, snack foods 4 percent,
meat poultry fish 1 percent. From here you can see fruits and vegetables
are the highest share as per the organic production is concern and see more fruits we do consume
as the raw and if they with contaminated with pesticides the insecticides or the fungicides
that has the severe adverse effect on human health. So, first one we have the more on fruits and
vegetables ah as uh organic productions. Many salad fruits also like you have the carrot
or the cucumber they are taken as the raw. So, ah if they are with pesticide ah residues
like you have the DDT or maybe the chlorine nitro hydrocarbons groups of pesticides, which
have the sever adverse effect on human health. ah Like the BSC, this is a banned from the
market, DDT also banned from the agricultural use; still farmers are using those persistent
pesticides. They remains for the longer periods in the
food chains and they these ah serious consequences on the human health if you consume them with
the as a raw and the pesticide as we discussed their spread in the vegetables and transported
to the market without any delay. ah
So, we need to think about this uh ah this organic farming how we can minimize the ah
use of the pesticide specially, so that ah we can get a better quality of foods. And if you see the countries with the largest
number of organic producers and the farmers in 2015’s, India ranks first. So, around 585200 farmers in India are the
organic farmers, followed by Ethiopia 203602 farmers, Mexico 200000 farmers, ah Uganda,
Philippines, Tanzania, Peru, Turkey, Paraguay, and Italy. So, ah proximately the the number of farmers
they are converting the land to organics, are increased in India over the years. If you see this one, India has more organic
farmers than any other country as we discussed. India has 585200 organic farmers, followed
by Ethiopia, Mexico, ah Uganda and Philippines and the interest we can see India saw the
third highest annual increase of organic cultivable land in 2015 next to Australia and US. So, ah so ah; that means, that it shows the
the statistics shows. So, ah the the farmers in India they are motivated,
they are getting motivated to convert their land to organic. But this should ah because we have to go because
it is our a land wise we have the less land under organic as compared to either Australia
or US though we have the more number of farmers ah they are converted to organic. See the organic producer by region. So, as you see the number of farmers So, Asia
stands the number 1 35 percent, ah followed by Africa ah thus 30 percent, Latin America
19 percent, Europe 14 percent and ah Oceania, North America 1 percent is because it is for
the organic producers or the farmers are concerned. If you see the ah the global organic market
this is growing as the from a 2000-2015 if you see the 2000 it was 17.9 billion US dollar;
2005, it became 33.2 billion US dollar and in next 5 years it is also very close to double
59.1 US dollar and in 2015 this is around 81.6 billion US dollar. So that means, the the demand of organic foods
in global market is also increasing. But if see the ah the organic food market
in European countries because they are gaining the highest popularity organic food market
European countries and there are different market the story for the the organic market
why the organic because ah ah organic foods they are gaining the premium price and the
farmers are the converting their lands to organic huge scale. So, there are some ah facts are there because
initially because the consumer awareness or initially the farmers did produce organic
foods that was a production at the supply induced market. Afterwards, so there a demand driven that
means, the during late 90’s probably the consumer demand the customers were interested to have
the organic organic foods, as a demand driven and afterwards the government induced that
is a policy induced market came, where the government took initiative to expand area
under organic farming. So, that is how the the European market they
have gained ah in organic foods and with due to the the consumers awareness the interest
or the consumer interest for the better quality of food at the same time the initiative for
the from the government sites ah to convert more and more land under organic farming. You see the world are of organic agriculture,
2015 if you see the organic land; total you have the 50.9 million meter of organic farm
land and around 179 countries with organic farming and this increase around close to
we can say 15 percent as compared to 2015 with the past one is 15 percent increase the
organic farm land and the that the land is concerned. The top 3 countries are the Australia, Argentina
and US they have the huge learn conversion to organic farming. If you see the organic producer around 2.4
million farmers that is the organic farmers and this is increases around 7 to 0.2 percent
7.2 percent from 2015 to 2014, sorry 14 to 2 sorry 7.2 percent from 2014 to 2015 and
it is a top 3 countries having higher number of farmers growing organic foods. India stands number 1 as around 585000 farmers
their organic followed by Ethiopia and Mexico You see the organic market; global organic
food market have a 75 billion UA ah Euro and top 3 countries US, German and France. They have the ah ah organic food market and
as we discussed now because the European countries or US. So, this has gained market organic foods already
has gained market; that means, there is a health conscious of the consumers because
they want a better quality food. They are ready to pay premium price for the
organic foods and they have the transparency people they have a trust building, the consumer
to beliefs organic that means, the transparencies they fully organics. So, in India also similarly if you if you
learn from them we have to make a trust building, transparency, fairness principles that you
see in organic farming’s, the farmers need to build and the consumers should rely and
the products is organic and also the government should take initiatives to support the farmers,
so that more and more land can be converted to organic. We are getting more and more farmers coming
under organic; at the same time we need more and more land should come under organic farming. If you see the organic food a domestic sale
and exports in India, so, these are the data receives a different crops, domestic sales
in metric terms and the product also export in metric tons, where he can rise around 5000
tonnes; as organic rice was for the domestic sale, sugar around 6000 tonnes, tea 1500 tonnes,
coffee 750 tonnes. Say fruits and vegetables we are getting around
5000 tonnes, millets 2000 tonnes, oils around 2000 tonnes, honey also 2000 tonnes. So, these are the domestic sales of organic
produce in India and those were exporting see the basmati rice around 5243 tons, process
foods 8752 tons, oil crops around 18000 tons, cottons and textiles 17363 tons, honey rice
normal rice around 1634 tons. So, these are the exported and the the (( )) is
around 1004’s including your domestic and the export market. If you see where are we now? India, the food for thought if you see, in
case organic foods, we have been leading organic food producers in India. They are the Sresta Natural Bioproducts, then
Organic India, Morarka Organic, Nature Bio Food, Sunstar, Overseas, Kashmir Apiaries. So, these are the leading organic food producers
in India. 1 million hectares of total area under organic
top cultivations in India. So, number of organic farmers are distressed
585000 farmers are organic, around 850 crores organic food exports from India and 100 crores
as a domestic market Indian market and 235 total number of organic food exporters in
India. So, it is the; so, these are the ah where
we are standing against Stesta around ah as discussed it 1 billion US dollar of the organic
food market. This is our status, we need to proceed we
need to go further to make conversions of the land to organic in India. So, you can see the Sikkim, the state that
is converted to fully organic. So, slowly you have have to to convert to
ah to convert the lands to organic way productions to have a sustainable agriculture sustainable
productions better quality of the food. If you see the future prospects; as you seen
here as organic farming as grown almost 25 to 30 percent per year during the past 10
years. So, in spite of recession fears, the growth
of organic farming is going unaffected. the increasing awareness about the safety
and the quality of food, long term sustainability of the system and accumulated evidence are
being equally productive that that is what we are discussing the organic farming has
emerged as an alternative system of farming which not only addresses the quality and sustainability
concerns , but also ensures debt free profitable livelihood option. So, on you see Indian conditions as a farming
as you are moving to organic because we need a good quality of the foods and we need a
sustainable agriculture ; that means, we need to maintain our soil fertility, we need to
live in a better environment, we need to have a soil portal for a long term. So, the difficulty the adverse effect of chemical
fertilizer as you see realise today, we do we want to convert the farming such a way
that our future generations should not suffer. They should get the production as per the
need without harming the environments, protecting the environmental quality and also protecting
the soil health. So, this is our the conditions there are future
for the Indian agriculture as you move ahead we need uh look need to look into this. Then this comes by how the organic farming
has a prospects has a future in India. As we see the farmers more number of farmers
they are getting converted to organic and there is a scope ample scope that or the for
the organic farming because so, I will say it needs 30 percent less input cost. The why you say organic farming needs 30 percent
less input cost? Because you see; so, as you have challenge
to maintain the production levels as of chemical farming. We need to use the on farm inputs like we
will discussed in the later classes; the input production ; that means, the compost productions. The compost production has to be done on the
farm. So, if you do the composting on farm use your
the crop residues you can minimize the input cost. Now we are coming many type farming to will
discuss the nature of farming we are coming, we are dealing with nature farming. So, that we can minimize the the cost of the
fertilizers, the cost of pesticides if you are using the on farm resources converting
to organic manure. And as you are growing for organic it gives
the premium price at least 10 percent higher price as compared to the conventional produce. So, in that way the organic farming can be
profitable. Only disadvantage that it the yield levels
is slightly lower than chemical fertilizer; it can have the 90 percent the yield as compared
to conventional farming. So, that is one the bottlenecks difficulty
has because ah the chemical firming gives the ah immediate available nutrients to the
soil. So, it gives a better yield as compared to
organic farming where the nutrient releases low but this thing we can up head if you can
a miss the organic fertilizer with specific nutrients as per the need of the crops and
we will be able to maintain the yield ah as of chemical farming. But there are some props like your cereal
crops and there are crops vegetables. Vegetables are more responsive to organics
ah as compared to cereal crops ah because the this crops they require are nutrients
are the specific growth stages. So, we need to meet the need to requirement
of the crops at specific growth stages to maintain the yield levels for that the cereals
get the better yield using chemical fertilizers that meet the requirement where organic we
face some difficulties , but still doing proper managements with enriched nutrients, enriched
organic manure here we can we can we can target the yield at the same time with a better quality. And in Indian conditions quite suitable maintaining
animals for compost provides the additional income from milk. So, ah why I am saying organic farming is
the most suitable in Indian condition; this is a you can say zero emission concept or
this a integrated approach of farming systems where if you see there is no emission or you
see have the 0 emission concept ah as you see in a in a loop. If you see, so these are the ah the input
of output of one that has a input for the other components. If you go for the integrated farming systems
you have your crop, you have your life stock and have your so, there are many components
are crop livestock, fishery also you have the ah fish production livestock or fishery. So, ah the crop the bioproduct of the crop
can be paid to the livestocks for repairing materials. Of course, this can this can go to as a for
the organic manure productions and this are the the left or materials from the livestock
that goes for the ah organic manure and the crop residue also that can meet the organic
manure productions and these acts the nutrients for the as a on farm inputs, do not rely on
the off farm inputs that act as a neutron demand for the crops. So, this concept we said as the zero emission;
zero mission concept that means, there is no waste. So, by ah the by product of one component
that act as a input for the other components. So, this is the or we say as integrated farming
system, integrated farming system. So, where the it is a system is a collection
of components and their interrelationship they are group together. By doing so, farming systems by crop, livestock,
fishery, poultry and other we have the the organic manure manure by the manures or organic
fertilizer production systems. So, this can be recycling in such a way that
so, there is zero emission means this as per the global ah climate change my point of view
So, less emission of greenhouse gases the atmosphere ; that means, no emissions or very
zero emissions from this systems and here all integrated the there is no waste zero
emission or zero waste production systems. So, ah this is a particularly feasible in
India, why because as as we discussed because Indian ah farmers we can we can have the ah
feasible in India, we can see the 80 percent farm holdings are small and marginals we discussed
and resource poor farmers. So, for them organic agriculture is attractive
systems as we discussed is a holistic concepts. If you integrate many enterprises which can
be feasible Indian farming systems, where you can the farmer can have ah there the cows
I said because they and because for the organic farming we need the cattle cow for the cow
dung, the cow dung is the main source of the organic farming systems that provide the nutrient. Because you see the cow dung, the cow excreta
there is resend many nutrients also highly energetic, unlike a other excreta because
cow harm that is they this solar energy and by receiving solar energy this this help to
the ah that energy from the food materials solar energy received with food materials
and after the digestions the cow excreta that rich in many nutrients and the ah energy say
energy source of good ah good source of uh energy. So, ah that makes the organic manures highly
ah valuables with the minerals, massive macronutrients, micronutrients, enzymes and hormones. So, you having the animals ah that per compost
provides the also the additional income from the milk of the farmers. So, organic farmer is more involved in the
farming systems and its easily adapt ah milk ah farming like poultry ah milk poultry, ah
goatery and the piggery of course. The proper cultivations, value additions and
marketing of this extra produce will increase the incomes substantially. So, ah as I said the Indian by the small ah
small holding farmers or the resource poor farmers. So, further the as profitability is concerns
they can have a integrated farming system concepts where the crops are grown in parallel
with the livestocks and it can helps per as the balance food for his own family like the
ah crop and the fish, poultry, milk and egg. So, that gives a balanced nutrition for the
farm family at the same time it is a healthy food. ah
If you see the conversion to organic agriculture, so now we as we see; so how we can ah make
a conversion to organic agriculture? So, we will be dealing in the later section
but in the brief so, as you see the starters farmers are interested for conversion, they
want to convert to organics right. So, in this way So, they need the follow the
3 steps collecting informations. Then try out the most promising practice are
on a small scale initially then implement organic practice on the entire farm farm. So, we don’t advise that the whole to be converted
to organic, so, from the very beginning. So, farmers they have to get information’s. Then slowly convert to organics. So, initially the few portion of the farmland
can we convert organic and later on later on slowly and slowly this can be converted
to organic. Then how to get information’s about organic
ah production practices? It can gets from the ah books or the booklets
like the training as you give a lectures from training or sharing the experience with the
other farmers those who are growing organics, videos or the through radio or internet. So, best way we we can come to any research
stations or the universities agricultural universities who are involved in organic farming
the practicing organic farming they can get the information’s how to go ahead with organic
agriculture. Then how to start implementing organic agriculture? So, that we will be discussing in detail,
but in brief as discussed you go for the slow and steady. So, some part of the land initially should
be converted to organic and over the years the the lands could be array to organics and
it may takes around 6 years. By this 6 years the whole farmland of a farmer
can be convert converted to organics. So, that they includes the all the components
the crops will be there, livestocks will be there, they should have their on farm inputs
like organic manures. This should not rely on the up farm inputs
like a integrated farming system concepts. They have to build and the partners can joint
together also to convert their land to organic agriculture. Thank you very much. Yeah.

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