Articles, Blog

Int’l Commerce, Snorkeling Camels, and The Indian Ocean Trade: Crash Course World History #18

August 26, 2019

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
World History, and today we’re going to be discussing trade here, in the Indian Ocean.
Oh, my globe had a globe! We’re gonna do some new-school history where we talk about
a system instead of talking about individuals or some boring boring dynasty — no, Stan,
not that kind of Dynasty — yes, that kind of dynasty. So many world history classes still focus
on People Who Wore Funny Hats, and how their antics shaped our lives, right? And while
it’s interesting and fun to note that, for instance King Charles VI of France believed
that he was made out of glass, relentlessly focusing on the actions of the Funny-Hatted-People who
ruled us makes us forget that we also make history. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Did Charles VI of France
really believe that he was made out of glass? Yes, he did, but today we’re talking about
Indian Ocean trade and it’s going to be interesting, I promise. So pay attention.
ALSO, NO HATS! This is a classroom, not a Truman Capote beach party! [theme music] So Indian Ocean trade was like the Silk Road,
in that it was a network of trade routes that connected people who had stuff to people who
wanted it and were willing to pay for it. And just as the Silk Road was not a single
road, there were lots of Indian Ocean trade routes connecting various port cities around
the Indian Ocean Basin, including Zanzibar and Mogadishu and Hormuz and Canton. By the way, before you criticize my pronunciation,
please remember that mispronunciation is my thing and I’ve been doing it since episode
one, and nobody ever notices that it’s a thing! Sorry, I lost it there… But Indian
Ocean trade was bigger, richer, and featured more diverse players than the Silk Road, but
it is much less famous probably because it does not have a snazzy name. What do you think, Stan? Like the “Neptunian
Network”? No. “The Wet Web”? No, that’s definitely not it. “The Sexy Sea Lanes of
South Asia”? No, that’s too hard for me to say with my lisp… “THE MONSOON MARKETPLACE!”
Thanks, Danica. And now the tyranny of dates: By about 700 CE, there was a recognizable
Monsoon Marketplace, but it really blew up between 1000 CE and 1200. It then declined
a bit during the Pax Mongolica, when overland trade became cheap and safe, Thanks to– wait
for it– The Mongols. [Mongoltage] But then Indian Ocean trade surged again in the 14th
and 15th centuries. So who was trading? Swahili coast cities, Islamic empires in the Middle
East, India, China, Southeast Asia, and NOT EUROPE, which is probably one of the reasons
that Monsoon Marketplace isn’t as famous as it should be. Let’s go to the Thought
Bubble. So if you live in China, and you need some
ivory to make the handle for a sword, you have to trade for it, because elephants only
live in India and Africa. One of the reasons Indian Ocean trade took off is that there
were a wide range of resources available and a wide range of import needs — from ivory
to timber to books to grain. But the most important thing was the wind. The Indian Ocean is home to a set of very
special winds called Monsoons. You generally hear about Monsoons in the context of rain
in India, but rather than thinking of Monsoons as the rain itself, think of them as the wind
that bring a rainy season. The great thing about seasons is that they come regularly
— and so do the Monsoon winds. So if you were a sailor, you could count on the wind
to bring you from Africa to India if you sailed between April and September, and one that
would bring you back to Africa if you sailed between November and February. In fact, these
winds were so predictable that early maritime travel guides often listed ideal times of
down to the week and sometimes even the day. Predictable winds make trade a lot less risky:
Like, back in the day when the only power for ships were sails and oarsmen, your cargo
might not arrive on time, or it might spoil, or you might die, all of which are bad for
the health of global economic trade. But predictable winds meant lower risk, which meant cheaper
trade, which meant more trade, which meant more people could have awesome sword handles.
Thanks Thought Bubble. Okay, there are a few more facets of Indian
Ocean trade worth mentioning. First, Indian Ocean trade incorporated many more people
than participated in Silk Road trade. There were Jewish people and people from Africa
to Malaysia and India and China, all sailing around and setting up trading communities
where they would act as middle men, trying to sell stuff for more than they bought it for and trying
to find new stuff to buy that they could sell later. But despite this diversity, for the most part,
especially on the Western half of the Indian Ocean basin, the trade was dominated by Muslim
merchants. Why? Largely because they had the money to build ships, although we will see
that in the 15th century, the Chinese state could have changed that balance completely.
By the way, I need to point out that when I say that the trade was dominated by Muslim
merchants, the emphasis should be on the merchants- not the Muslim or the dominated. As previously noted, we tend to think that
states and governments and the funny-hatted people who rule them are the real movers and
shakers in history, but that’s really not the case. In the Indian Ocean, the terms of
trade were set by the merchants and by the demands of the market, not by the whims of
political rulers. And the self-regulating nature of that trade was remarkable and pretty
much unprecedented. I mean, the most amazing thing is that, except for a few pirates, all
of this trade was peaceful! For the better part of seven hundred years
these merchant ships were free to sail the seas without the need for protection from
any state’s navy. This despite the fact that some pretty valuable crap was being traded.
No, Thought Bubble, I meant that colloquially. Alright, we need to do the open letter before
Thought Bubble tries more puns. Magic! For today’s Open Letter, to further discuss
the relationship between merchants and nobles, we’re going to go inland to Kashmir where
Kota Rani was the ruler until 1339. Mostly I just love this story. But first, let’s
find out what’s in the Secret Compartment. Oh, it’s Blowouts. Stan, are you asking
me to make a diarrhea joke? Because I’m above that. I will, however, give you a party
blower solo. Dear Kota Rani, So, you had a pretty crazy
life. First, when you were a kid you were kidnapped by a rival noble who disguised his
army as a bunch of merchants. Then you were forced to marry your kidnapper who was the
ruler of Kashmir, but, then he died. And then you became the ruler and you were really good
at it and everything was going awesome and you were lining things up for your sons, but
then some dude comes in and decides he’s going to marry you and forces you to do it
by attacking you. And so what do you do? Immediately after your second wedding you commit suicide
by slicing open your belly and offer your intestines to your horrible new husband as
a wedding present. Oh, Stan. I don’t want to say it but I have to; That really took
guts, Kota Rani! Sorry… And all this because your father welcomed an army into his house
thinking they were merchants. Best wishes, John Green So, right. You wouldn’t let an army, or
a rival noble, into your house, but everyone welcomes a merchant — and not just royalty.
The great thing about seaborne trade is that you can trade bulk goods like cotton cloth,
foodstuffs, and timber that’s all too heavy to strap onto a camel or mule. So for the
first time we see the beginnings of goods being traded for a mass market, instead of
just luxury goods, like silk for elites. Wood, for instance, can be used to build houses
— but it’s not all that plentiful in the Arabian peninsula, however, when it becomes
cheaper thanks to trade, suddenly more people can have better houses. Much of the timber
that was shipped in the Monsoon Marketplace came from Africa, which is kind of emblematic. Africa produced a lot of the raw materials
like animal hides and skin and ivory and gold. The Swahili city states imported finished
goods such as silk and porcelain from China and cotton cloth from India. Spices and foodstuffs
like rice were shipped from Southeast Asia and especially Sri Lanka where black pepper
was a primary export good, and the Islamic world provided everything from coffee to books
and weapons. But it wasn’t just products that made their way around the eastern hemisphere
thanks to the Indian Ocean. Technology spread, too. Like the magnetic
compass, which is kind of crucial if you like to know where you’re going, came from China.
Muslim sailors popularized the astrolabe which made it easier to navigate by the stars. Boats
using stern-post rudders were easier to steer, so that technology quickly spread throughout
the Monsoon Marketplace. The Islamic world also produced the triangular lateen sail,
which became super important because it allowed for ships to tack against the wind. This meant
that a skilled crew could make their way through the ocean even if they didn’t have a strong
tailwind. And just as with the Silk Road, ideas also traveled in the Monsoon Marketplace. For instance today, more Muslims live in Indonesia
than in any other country. And yes, I know Indonesia has more than two islands. This
is not to scale, obviously. Knowing what you’ve already learned about the growth of Islam
and the spread of trade, it won’t surprise you to learn that Islam spread to Indonesia
via the Monsoon Marketplace. After the 1200s, the region which had previously been heavily
influenced by the Indian religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, like witness this temple, for
instance… became increasingly Islamic as rulers and elites adopted the religion so
they could have religious as well as economic ties to the people they were trading with.
The conversion of most of a region to Islam, where it continues to flourish today is a
pretty big deal. But Islam didn’t spread as effectively to the to Thailand, Laos, Cambodia
or Vietnam because they weren’t centers of trade. How do you become a center for trade? Well,
let’s zoom in here to the strait of Malacca. You can see how it could act as a choke point
for trade. Any city that controlled that strait could stop the ships from going through it,
or more likely tax them. And that’s exactly what happened, to such an extent that a powerful
merchant state called Srivijaya rose up on Sumatra. And for a while, Srivijaya dominated
trade in the region, because there were so many ships going through the Strait of Malacca
to and from China. But, as we’ll see in another episode that this trade abruptly declined
in the 15th century. And with it, so did Srivijaya. This brings up a key point about Indian Ocean
Trade, which is that it was indispensable to the creation of certain city states, like
Srivijaya and the city states of the Swahili Coast. Without trade, those places wouldn’t
have existed, let alone become wealthy and grand. Trade was a huge source of wealth for these
cities because they could tax it; through import and export duties or port fees. But
the fact that they are no longer powerful shows that trade can be a pretty weak foundation
on which to built a polity, even a small one. There are many reasons for this: like high
taxes can motivate traders to find other routes, for instance, but the main one is this: Reliance
upon trade makes you especially vulnerable to the peaks and troughs in the global economy.
The legacy of the merchant kingdom in Southeast Asia is still alive and well in Singapore,
for instance. But one of the great lessons of cities that have declined or disappeared
is that there’s usually a town nearby that’s eager to take your place and happy to offer
lower taxes. It’s almost as if the merchants decide where the people with the funny hats
go, rather than the other way around. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller, our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history
teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. Our graphics team is Thought Bubble, Last week’s Phrase
of the Week was: “Unless you are the Mongols.” If you want to suggest future phrases of the
week or guess at this week’s you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions
related to today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching. and as we say in my hometown,
Don’t Forget To Be Awesome. Oh! It’s going to be a crash!! Everything’s fine…


  • Reply ann c May 17, 2018 at 12:09 am

    im hardcore cramming for the AP exam tomorrow and I'm legit crying KIDS DONT PROCRASTINATE.

  • Reply Outdoor Otaku May 17, 2018 at 12:44 am

    shoutout to HHS students studying for the exam lmao

  • Reply Rafael Alvarez May 27, 2018 at 9:50 pm

    slave trade???? hello!!!!!

  • Reply Dustin Bannister Cropduster May 29, 2018 at 8:55 am

    Party blower solo is the best thing I have seen on this channel.

  • Reply Andrea Bozzola May 29, 2018 at 2:45 pm

    You know what? The truly ignorant is the one who speaks about cultural point of view and then breaks my balls always spewing these little catch phrases about the EVIL eurocentrist history you have studied at school. Ever read a book, not a novel- a BOOK, before going to university?

  • Reply udi112 May 29, 2018 at 7:36 pm

    i feel like 50% of the video is straight up humor by the host, he needs to be more self aware when inserting his own comments

  • Reply Chris Beard June 6, 2018 at 5:05 pm

    Love these Crash Course videos. Keep them coming.

  • Reply Tim Mertens June 11, 2018 at 12:04 am

    his outfit and hair remind me of steve from blues clues in this episode

  • Reply clericneokun June 27, 2018 at 12:27 am

    I wouldn't mind calling it the Nep Nep Network. ^_^

  • Reply Vincent Cornelius June 28, 2018 at 4:24 pm

    Indonesia produce spices too which makes them rich

  • Reply Jesa Manolis July 12, 2018 at 2:47 am

    john is kinda a baby

  • Reply Mansoor Ahmed July 12, 2018 at 12:16 pm

    Srivijaya was conquered by Indians who say they have never conquered any other country .

  • Reply Educational Minds Hub July 28, 2018 at 4:57 pm

    did Japan trade usING the Indian ocean trade route?

  • Reply Draguinny August 5, 2018 at 5:13 pm


  • Reply Anonymous person August 6, 2018 at 8:42 am

    He conveniently forgot to mention the East African slave trade through the Indian ocean. Where Arabs would trade Bantu slaves know as "Zanj" that made it as far east as China. I wonder why that is 🧐🤷🏾‍♂️

  • Reply Alex L. August 7, 2018 at 5:02 pm

    06:00 Johns face 😂

  • Reply Avi Chaturvedi August 12, 2018 at 2:12 pm

    John says (KA-sh-MEER) but really it's (KU-SH-meer). No, seriously, why don't you use your fascist killer and actually call stuff the way you need to? (I'm kidding your videos are great thanks)

  • Reply Shinigami 019 August 15, 2018 at 5:17 pm


  • Reply Irvan Kurniawan Jong August 22, 2018 at 12:09 pm

    are you sure its Srivijaya not Malaka? Cause last time I checked, Srivijaya didn't turn into a Muslim Country, or did it….

  • Reply JJ September 2, 2018 at 6:48 pm

    Fun fact: Indonesia has more than 18,000 islands and it is the country with most islands
    I partially know that because I am from there and because of the internet😜

  • Reply Stella Maris September 11, 2018 at 8:48 pm

    Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java in the East to Zanzibar and Mombasa in the West. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean rim were Janus-faced. They looked outward to the sea as much as they looked inward to the hinterland.

  • Reply Paperclipfog September 13, 2018 at 9:36 pm

    1:51 The monsoon marketplace really "Blew Up"… Get it… Monsoon—Wind—Winds Blow—Blew up—get it… right??

  • Reply BPT_NV September 21, 2018 at 3:53 am

    i hate ap history but im not trying to fail

  • Reply ClaireBear1834 September 24, 2018 at 8:04 pm

    tips fedora

  • Reply John McDonald September 24, 2018 at 9:33 pm

    Does the intro music sound hollow, or is it just my headphones

  • Reply Rebel Studios October 5, 2018 at 9:39 pm


  • Reply House M.D October 8, 2018 at 4:51 am

    I love you

  • Reply Kolxda October 9, 2018 at 10:53 pm

    T H E M O N G U L S

  • Reply William Nolan October 21, 2018 at 5:34 pm

    he looks better with longer hair

  • Reply James Gerondelis October 22, 2018 at 1:53 am

    What are some similarities between Indian Ocean trade and Silk Road trade

  • Reply Chaotic Harmony October 23, 2018 at 3:45 am

    It took me 30-40 minutes to watch a 10 minuets video
    God I hate work sheets I wanted to go to bed half an hour ago😭

  • Reply Tartanka Cunista & Cabista October 24, 2018 at 1:04 am

    Moqadishu Capital City of Somalia 😤👌👏, ,,,,,,,,🔝🍅🌾🌳🐐

  • Reply Jonathan Karbach October 31, 2018 at 12:27 pm

    Starting to think the purpose of these videos is to teach the history of the Mongols instead of the history of the world

  • Reply Skye Mamidisetty October 31, 2018 at 9:39 pm

    Stop thinking about "It's almost as if the merchants decide where the people with the funny hats go, rather than the other way around." and start studying for your World History AP test, child!

  • Reply Steph Plank November 3, 2018 at 11:25 pm

    Me in my history exam I’m writing on Monday: “ Africa and Asia hosted an incredible phenomenon facilitated through trade. The sexy sea lanes of South Asia enabled the development and rise of prom…”
    my lecturer: “ damn she’s good. Say no more, 100%”

  • Reply Aj Cowan November 4, 2018 at 1:32 am

    Elephants live in Asia too

  • Reply Xiaoxuan Wang November 4, 2018 at 6:00 am

    I just love this video so much, I watched it for 4 years already!

  • Reply Hiya S November 4, 2018 at 6:06 pm

    that was dope.

  • Reply RaidsEpicly November 12, 2018 at 2:48 am

    That feel when John puts Brunei on blast like that, god damn

  • Reply Noah Morsheimer November 13, 2018 at 6:46 pm


  • Reply Angel Lomas November 13, 2018 at 8:12 pm


  • Reply Brenton Begishe November 15, 2018 at 8:39 pm

    he is gae

  • Reply Suvam kumar Sarangi November 17, 2018 at 3:33 am

    First pirate in Indian ocean is Vasco da gamma .

  • Reply Jessica Bradley November 20, 2018 at 12:58 am

    Why do elephants live in India and Africa? Google has no answers.

  • Reply Jah Vx November 20, 2018 at 4:47 pm

    Sigh Africans sold their lands to the traders to be sons and daughters of Abraham. Smh

  • Reply Magnus Andres Lescano November 20, 2018 at 8:52 pm

    Butchering names from episode 1

  • Reply Trinion - November 24, 2018 at 5:49 am

    Why forget bout Malacca😢

  • Reply Michael Daichman December 3, 2018 at 4:09 pm


  • Reply Person18 18 December 4, 2018 at 2:04 pm

    LAOS NO.1

    This is just a joke in my classroom which is in India btw

  • Reply U.S. Government December 5, 2018 at 3:18 am

    i died in the party blowout solo lmao!

  • Reply Austin Harris December 10, 2018 at 8:53 am

    Which was faster the silk road or the indian ocean trade.

  • Reply LaMar McNeil December 14, 2018 at 11:14 am

    How could y’all leave out one of the most important players in Indian Ocean Trade: Madagascar?

  • Reply Katherine December 17, 2018 at 11:13 pm

    Where can I find more information on the Silk and Sea Roads for a research paper I have due by this upcoming weekend? (12/22/2018)

  • Reply the4amigas December 18, 2018 at 4:59 am

    my finals tomorrow and i’m watching everything on x2

  • Reply Person18 18 January 7, 2019 at 7:32 pm

    Dynasty fall because the de-nasty

  • Reply John von Shepard January 8, 2019 at 7:57 pm

    Dungeon walker

  • Reply Pranav Belligundu January 15, 2019 at 4:32 am

    stop with those PUUUUUUUUUUUUUNS

  • Reply Deep Tracks January 23, 2019 at 9:40 pm

    Although I tell myself to comment lightly and wisely, I must take this opportunity to promote the "late show w/ Stephen Colbert"' segment "big furry hat"

  • Reply All On My Own Here We Go January 29, 2019 at 1:41 am

    Kota Rani is a LEGEND

  • Reply Nicholas Osgood January 30, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    Oh yea yea

  • Reply Connor Holliday February 6, 2019 at 10:49 pm


  • Reply Benjamin Sharpe February 7, 2019 at 7:53 pm

    Your mispronunciation has been driving me crazy. Don't worry, it has been noticed.

  • Reply Sara Charlie February 20, 2019 at 1:05 am

    Indian Ocean system
    = lots of port cities Zanzibar canton
    More diverse
    The monsoon market place , pax mongol decline Silk Road
    . Wide range of resource available
    Special wind monsoon so predictable a lot less risky cheaper trade more trade and more people can have
    Trade dominated by Muslim merchants and demands by the market
    Seaborne trade u can trade bulk goods mass market
    Teachniloy spread compass astrolabe stonpost rudder triangular Letin
    Spread to Indonesia Islam
    Strait of malacca tax people srivijaua dominated trade

  • Reply MustardCraft February 26, 2019 at 3:14 am

    Truman capody beach party

  • Reply Plack morty March 18, 2019 at 7:34 am

    Bloodthirsty Gama was only the beginning of the end of the strong wealthy progressive and inclusive south Indian dominance.

  • Reply Mountain Valley March 19, 2019 at 6:29 pm

    5:24 – 6:08 had me dead

  • Reply Cornell Waters March 20, 2019 at 4:27 am

    Thank You 💹

  • Reply Peter Terranova March 23, 2019 at 8:44 pm

    Your intro is literally just people wearing funny hats.

  • Reply DiBBagE March 24, 2019 at 6:00 am

    My guy needs to get a fade (haircut)

  • Reply Malachi Nelson March 31, 2019 at 10:58 pm

    um, hello Mr. John Green, I'm sorry I have to say this but as God's messenger, I feel it is my duty. Dear Johnny boy God called, and he said that you're going to hell. Have fun down there li' hekker.

  • Reply Scotti Bee April 3, 2019 at 8:00 pm

    I feel bad for anyone who watches your videos with headphones.

  • Reply Samarra Masengi April 4, 2019 at 2:09 am

    this is where u go to get crash course indonesia 🇮🇩

  • Reply Katie April 5, 2019 at 7:34 pm

    That party blower solo was the highlight of my day👌

  • Reply Diego EnFuego April 16, 2019 at 1:43 am

    John Green reminds me of my western civ professor. His enthusiasm makes history a lot more interesting. Keep it up!

  • Reply Luma M April 24, 2019 at 3:28 pm

    Obrigada pela legenda em português (BR)

  • Reply Devon Turner April 26, 2019 at 1:07 pm

    G'day Crash Course, I'm a total fan! You should do an episode on Northern Australia as the very limit of the silk road/monsoon market place. Starting in approximately 1700 CE Indonesian traders (called Macassans from modern day Sulawesi) began making extensive seasonal voyages to the Northern Australian coast (Arnhem Land and the Kimberlys) to fish for Trepang (Sea Slugs favored by the Chinese as an aphrodisiac). Consequentially, they influenced Aboriginal Australian groups here. Particularly through language.and intermarriage. The British colony of South Australia annexed a large part of Northern Australia (Northern Territory) in 1863 in an attempt to open up trade with the 'vast Asian markets' but ironically banned the Macassan traders in 1911 when they stopped granted fishing permits to 'non Australian operators'.

  • Reply Samuel Garcia April 28, 2019 at 4:56 am

    rayan :0

  • Reply Mobbileboy April 28, 2019 at 8:56 pm

    I watch this just for the Tetris solo

  • Reply sumaridesfree May 6, 2019 at 12:21 pm

    not one mention of somalia

  • Reply Sarah Riedel May 14, 2019 at 1:13 am

    Always wear your seatbelt when operating a moving office chair.

  • Reply SpooksHD May 14, 2019 at 10:47 pm

    The notch haircut, oh how I miss this

  • Reply Jachob Dolak May 15, 2019 at 8:48 am

    who's here for last minute APWH studying

  • Reply transplant May 15, 2019 at 6:39 pm

    The lateen sail is believed to have developed independently in different parts of the world. Also, the entire advantage to a lateen sail is windward performance. If you're sailing with the monsoon, you're sailing downwind. A square sail would actually provide better performance with less effort. A lateen is sort of like using a sports car when you need a cargo van.

  • Reply Bob Bobby May 16, 2019 at 12:14 am

    i dont get half of the jokes :(((((((((((((((((((((((

  • Reply Ravi Adluru May 16, 2019 at 12:15 am

    party blower solo 5:23

  • Reply Rachel K May 16, 2019 at 1:29 am

    Is it just me, or did the party blowers sound like a classical piece.

  • Reply peipidae May 16, 2019 at 3:19 am

    APWH exam for me tomorrow… good luck for all of y'all, whether it already happened or not.

  • Reply PowerMation May 16, 2019 at 3:27 am

    5:24 Thank Me Later

  • Reply Fluffehsquirrel May 16, 2019 at 6:26 pm

    If ya know ya know

  • Reply Dutchess and Kay May 16, 2019 at 7:53 pm

    5:24 whoa can I have that for a notification ringtone😂

  • Reply Cody Edwards June 18, 2019 at 3:15 pm

    Great way to sum it up in that last line.

  • Reply BISWAJIT MONDAL June 22, 2019 at 2:57 pm

    Sometimes I am feeling that the speaker has got a lottery!

  • Reply Bill Boyd June 25, 2019 at 2:03 am

    No catchy name? How about the Indian Ocean Slave trade?

  • Reply Dimas Andriansyah June 27, 2019 at 8:31 am

    In Indonesia Srivijaya is called Sriwijaya, okay nobody cares

  • Reply Noah Shrewsbery July 6, 2019 at 2:39 am

    4:32 All the merchants are also funny-hat-people. So it is only funny hat people that change the world.

    mic drop

  • Reply Umair Khan July 7, 2019 at 1:45 pm

    great vid

  • Reply The Good Fight July 8, 2019 at 5:37 am

    The blow out rendition of Tetris blew out my mind.

  • Reply Robert Scannell July 29, 2019 at 11:30 am

    You look kind of guy who would wear a fedora to prom.

  • Reply The Green Dragonzord August 9, 2019 at 11:29 pm

    Was that Tetris music

  • Reply Mia Hawkins August 21, 2019 at 1:27 am

    I have an AP project to do on Trade and this just saved me some research and was very entertaining. Thank you John Green.

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