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History of the world | Wikipedia audio article

November 4, 2019

The history of the world, in common parlance,
is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology,
genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing,
from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies. Humanity’s written history was preceded by
its prehistory, beginning with the Palaeolithic Era (“Early Stone Age”), followed by the Neolithic
Era (“New Stone Age”). The Neolithic saw the Agricultural Revolution
begin, between 8000 and 5000 BCE, in the Near East’s Fertile Crescent. During this period, humans began the systematic
husbandry of plants and animals. As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned
from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements. The relative security and increased productivity
provided by farming allowed communities to expand into increasingly larger units, fostered
by advances in transportation. Whether in prehistoric or historic times,
people always needed to be near reliable sources of potable water. Settlements developed on river banks as early
as 3000 BCE in Mesopotamia, on the banks of Egypt’s Nile River, in the Indus River valley,
and along China’s rivers. As farming developed, grain agriculture became
more sophisticated and prompted a division of labour to store food between growing seasons. Labour divisions led to the rise of a leisured
upper class and the development of cities, which provided the foundation for civilization. The growing complexity of human societies
necessitated systems of accounting and writing. With civilizations flourishing, ancient history
(“Antiquity,” including the Classical Age, up to about 500 CE) saw the rise and fall
of empires. Post-classical history (the “Middle Ages,”
c. 500–1500 CE ) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c. 750 CE – c. 1258
CE), and the early Italian Renaissance (from around 1300 CE). The mid-15th-century invention of modern printing,
employing movable type, revolutionized communication and facilitated ever wider dissemination of
information, helping end the Middle Ages and ushering in the Scientific Revolution. The Early Modern Period, sometimes referred
to as the “European Age”, from about 1500 to 1800, included the Age of Enlightenment
and the Age of Discovery. By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge
and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution
and began the Late Modern Period, which started around 1800 and has continued through the
present.This scheme of historical periodization (dividing history into Antiquity, Post-Classical,
Early Modern, and Late Modern periods) was developed for, and applies best to, the history
of the Old World, particularly Europe and the Mediterranean. Outside this region, including ancient China
and ancient India, historical timelines unfolded differently. However, by the 18th century, due to extensive
world trade and colonization, the histories of most civilizations had become substantially
intertwined. In the last quarter-millennium, the rates
of growth of population, knowledge, technology, communications, commerce, weapons destructiveness,
and environmental degradation have greatly accelerated, creating opportunities and perils
that now confront the planet’s human communities.==Prehistory=====
Early humans===Genetic measurements indicate that the ape
lineage which would lead to Homo sapiens diverged from the lineage that would lead to chimpanzees
and bonobos, the closest living relatives of modern humans, around 4.6 to 6.2 million
years ago. Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa
about 300,000 years ago, and reached behavioural modernity about 50,000 years ago. Modern humans spread rapidly from Africa into
the frost-free zones of Europe and Asia around 60,000 years ago. The rapid expansion of humankind to North
America and Oceania took place at the climax of the most recent ice age, when temperate
regions of today were extremely inhospitable. Yet, humans had colonized nearly all the ice-free
parts of the globe by the end of the Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago. Other hominids such as Homo erectus had been
using simple wood and stone tools for millennia, but as time progressed, tools became far more
refined and complex. Perhaps as early as 1.8 million years ago,
but certainly by 500,000 years ago, humans began using fire for heat and cooking. They also developed language in the Paleolithic
period and a conceptual repertoire that included systematic burial of the dead and adornment
of the living. Early artistic expression can be found in
the form of cave paintings and sculptures made from ivory, stone, and bone, showing
a spirituality generally interpreted as animism, or even shamanism. During this period, all humans lived as hunter-gatherers,
and were generally nomadic. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that
the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed
through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover.===Rise of civilization===
The Neolithic Revolution, beginning around 10,000 BCE, saw the development of agriculture,
which fundamentally changed the human lifestyle. Farming developed around 10,000 BCE in the
Middle East, around 7000 BCE in what is now China, about 6000 BCE in the Indus Valley
and Europe, and about 4000 BCE in the Americas. Cultivation of cereal crops and the domestication
of animals occurred around 8500 BCE in the Middle East, where wheat and barley were the
first crops and sheep and goats were domesticated. In the Indus Valley, crops were cultivated
by 6000 BCE, along with domesticated cattle. The Yellow River valley in China cultivated
millet and other cereal crops by about 7000 BCE, but the Yangtze River valley domesticated
rice earlier, by at least 8000 BCE. In the Americas, sunflowers were cultivated
by about 4000 BCE, and maize and beans were domesticated in Central America by 3500 BCE. Potatoes were first cultivated in the Andes
Mountains of South America, where the llama was also domesticated. Metal-working, starting with copper around
6000 BCE, was first used for tools and ornaments. Gold soon followed, with its main use being
for ornaments. The need for metal ores stimulated trade,
as many of the areas of early human settlement were lacking in ores. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, is first
known from about 2500 BCE, but did not become widely used until much later. Though early “cities” appeared at Jericho
and Catal Huyuk around 6000 BCE, the first civilizations did not emerge until around
3000 BCE in Egypt and Mesopotamia. These cultures gave birth to the invention
of the wheel, mathematics, bronze-working, sailing boats, the pottery wheel, woven cloth,
construction of monumental buildings, and writing. Writing developed independently and at different
times in five areas of the world: Egypt (c. 3200 BCE), India (c. 3200 BCE), Mesopotamia
(c. 3000 BCE), China (c. 1600 BCE), and Mesoamerica (c. 600 BCE).Farming permitted far denser
populations, which in time organized into states. Agriculture also created food surpluses that
could support people not directly engaged in food production. The development of agriculture permitted the
creation of the first cities. These were centres of trade, manufacturing
and political power. Cities established a symbiosis with their
surrounding countrysides, absorbing agricultural products and providing, in return, manufactured
goods and varying degrees of military control and protection. The development of cities was synonymous with
the rise of civilization. Early civilizations arose first in Lower Mesopotamia
(3000 BCE), followed by Egyptian civilization along the Nile River (3000 BCE), the Harappan
civilization in the Indus River Valley (in present-day India and Pakistan; 2500 BCE),
and Chinese civilization along the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers (2200 BCE). These societies developed a number of unifying
characteristics, including a central government, a complex economy and social structure, sophisticated
language and writing systems, and distinct cultures and religions. Writing facilitated the administration of
cities, the expression of ideas, and the preservation of information.Entities such as the Sun, Moon,
Earth, sky, and sea were often deified. Shrines developed, which evolved into temple
establishments, complete with a complex hierarchy of priests and priestesses and other functionaries. Typical of the Neolithic was a tendency to
worship anthropomorphic deities. Among the earliest surviving written religious
scriptures are the Egyptian Pyramid Texts, the oldest of which date to between 2400 and
2300 BCE.==Ancient history=====
Cradles of civilization===The Bronze Age is part of the three-age system
(Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age) that for some parts of the world describes effectively
the early history of civilization. During this era the most fertile areas of
the world saw city-states and the first civilizations develop. These were concentrated in fertile river valleys:
the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in the Indian subcontinent,
and the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers in China. Sumer, located in Mesopotamia, is the first
known complex civilization, developing the first city-states in the 4th millennium BCE. It was in these cities that the earliest known
form of writing, cuneiform script, appeared around 3000 BCE. Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. These pictorial representations eventually
became simplified and more abstract. Cuneiform texts were written on clay tablets,
on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed used as a stylus. Writing made the administration of a large
state far easier. Transport was facilitated by waterways—by
rivers and seas. The Mediterranean Sea, at the juncture of
three continents, fostered the projection of military power and the exchange of goods,
ideas, and inventions. This era also saw new land technologies, such
as horse-based cavalry and chariots, that allowed armies to move faster. These developments led to the rise of territorial
states and empires. In Mesopotamia there prevailed a pattern of
independent warring city-states and of a loose hegemony shifting from one city to another. In Egypt, by contrast, first there was a dual
division into Upper and Lower Egypt which was shortly followed by unification of all
the valley around 3100 BCE, followed by permanent pacification. In Crete the Minoan civilization had entered
the Bronze Age by 2700 BCE and is regarded as the first civilization in Europe. Over the next millennia, other river valleys
saw monarchical empires rise to power. In the 25th – 21st centuries BCE, the empires
of Akkad and Sumer arose in Mesopotamia.Over the following millennia, civilizations developed
across the world. Trade increasingly became a source of power
as states with access to important resources or controlling important trade routes rose
to dominance. By 1400 BCE, Mycenaean Greece began to develop. In India this era was the Vedic period, which
laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society,
and ended in the 6th century BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms
and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the subcontinent.As complex
civilizations arose in the Eastern Hemisphere, the indigenous societies in the Americas remained
relatively simple and fragmented into diverse regional cultures. During the formative stage in Mesoamerica
(about 1500 BCE to 500 CE), more complex and centralized civilizations began to develop,
mostly in what is now Mexico, Central America, and Peru. They included civilizations such as the Olmec,
Maya, Zapotec, Moche, and Nazca. They developed agriculture, growing maize,
chili peppers, cocoa, tomatoes, and potatoes, crops unique to the Americas, and creating
distinct cultures and religions. These ancient indigenous societies would be
greatly affected, for good and ill, by European contact during the early modern period.===Axial Age===Beginning in the 8th century BCE, the “Axial
Age” saw the development of a set of transformative philosophical and religious ideas, mostly
independently, in many different places. Chinese Confucianism, Indian Buddhism and
Jainism, and Jewish monotheism are all claimed by some scholars to have developed in the
6th century BCE. (Karl Jaspers’ Axial-Age theory also includes Persian Zoroastrianism,
but other scholars dispute his timeline for Zoroastrianism.) In the 5th century BCE, Socrates and Plato
made substantial advances in the development of ancient Greek philosophy. In the East, three schools of thought would
dominate Chinese thinking well into the 20th century. These were Taoism, Legalism, and Confucianism. The Confucian tradition, which would become
particularly dominant, looked for political morality not to the force of law but to the
power and example of tradition. Confucianism would later spread to the Korean
Peninsula and toward Japan. In the West, the Greek philosophical tradition,
represented by Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and other philosophers, along with accumulated
science, technology, and culture, diffused throughout Europe, Egypt, the Middle East,
and Northwest India, starting in the 4th century BCE after the conquests of Alexander III of
Macedon (Alexander the Great).===Regional empires===The millennium from 500 BCE to 500 CE saw
a series of empires of unprecedented size develop. Well-trained professional armies, unifying
ideologies, and advanced bureaucracies created the possibility for emperors to rule over
large domains whose populations could attain numbers upwards of tens of millions of subjects. The great empires depended on military annexation
of territory and on the formation of defended settlements to become agricultural centres. The relative peace that the empires brought
encouraged international trade, most notably the massive trade routes in the Mediterranean,
the maritime trade web in the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road. In southern Europe, the Greeks (and later
the Romans), in an era known as “classical antiquity,” established cultures whose practices,
laws, and customs are considered the foundation of contemporary Western culture. There were a number of regional empires during
this period. The kingdom of the Medes helped to destroy
the Assyrian Empire in tandem with the nomadic Scythians and the Babylonians. Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, was sacked
by the Medes in 612 BCE. The Median Empire gave way to successive Iranian
empires, including the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE),the Parthian Empire (247-224 BCE to CE)
and the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE). Several empires began in modern-day Greece. First was the Delian League (from 477 BCE)
and the succeeding Athenian Empire (454–404 BCE), centred in present-day Greece. Later, Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE),
of Macedon, founded an empire of conquest, extending from present-day Greece to present-day
India. The empire divided shortly after his death,
but the influence of his Hellenistic successors made for an extended Hellenistic period (323–31
BCE) throughout the region. In Asia, the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE)
existed in present-day India; in the 3rd century BCE, most of South Asia was united to the
Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great. From the 3rd century CE, the Gupta dynasty
oversaw the period referred to as ancient India’s Golden Age. From the 4th to 6th centuries, northern India
was ruled by the Gupta Empire. In southern India, three prominent Dravidian
kingdoms emerged: the Cheras, Cholas, and Pandyas. The ensuing stability contributed to heralding
in the golden age of Hindu culture in the 4th and 5th centuries. In Europe, the Roman Empire, centered in present-day
Italy, began in the 7th century BCE. In the 3rd century BCE the Roman Republic
began expanding its territory through conquest and alliances. By the time of Augustus (63 BCE – 14 CE),
the first Roman Emperor, Rome had already established dominion over most of the Mediterranean. The empire would continue to grow, controlling
much of the land from England to Mesopotamia, reaching its greatest extent under the emperor
Trajan (died 117 CE). In the 3rd century CE, the empire split into
western and eastern regions, with (usually) separate emperors. The Western empire would fall, in 476 CE,
to German influence under Odoacer. The eastern empire, now known as the Byzantine
Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, would continue for another thousand years,
until Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. In China, the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE),
the first imperial dynasty of China, was followed by the Han Empire (206 BCE – 220 CE). The Han Dynasty was comparable in power and
influence to the Roman Empire that lay at the other end of the Silk Road. Han China developed advanced cartography,
shipbuilding, and navigation. The Chinese invented blast furnaces, and created
finely tuned copper instruments. As with other empires during the Classical
Period, Han China advanced significantly in the areas of government, education, mathematics,
astronomy, technology, and many others. In Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum, centred in
present-day Ethiopia, established itself by the 1st century CE as a major trading empire,
dominating its neighbours in South Arabia and Kush and controlling the Red Sea trade. It minted its own currency and carved enormous
monolithic steles such as the Obelisk of Axum to mark their emperors’ graves. Successful regional empires were also established
in the Americas, arising from cultures established as early as 2500 BCE. In Mesoamerica, vast pre-Columbian societies
were built, the most notable being the Zapotec Empire (700 BCE – 1521 CE), and the Maya
civilization, which reached its highest state of development during the Mesoamerican Classic
period (c. 250–900 CE), but continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival
of the Spanish in the 16th century CE. Maya civilization arose as the Olmec mother
culture gradually declined. The great Mayan city-states slowly rose in
number and prominence, and Maya culture spread throughout the Yucatán and surrounding areas. The later empire of the Aztecs was built on
neighbouring cultures and was influenced by conquered peoples such as the Toltecs. Some areas experienced slow but steady technological
advances, with important developments such as the stirrup and moldboard plough arriving
every few centuries. There were, however, in some regions, periods
of rapid technological progress. Most important, perhaps, was the Mediterranean
area during the Hellenistic period, when hundreds of technologies were invented. Such periods were followed by periods of technological
decay, as during the Roman Empire’s decline and fall and the ensuing early medieval period.===Declines, falls, and resurgence===
The ancient empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and
supporting a central bureaucracy. These costs fell most heavily on the peasantry,
while land-owning magnates increasingly evaded centralized control and its costs. Barbarian pressure on the frontiers hastened
internal dissolution. China’s Han dynasty fell into civil war in
220 CE, beginning the Three Kingdoms period, while its Roman counterpart became increasingly
decentralized and divided about the same time in what is known as the Crisis of the Third
Century. The great empires of Eurasia were all located
on temperate and subtropical coastal plains. From the Central Asian steppes, horse-based
nomads, mainly Mongols and Turks, dominated a large part of the continent. The development of the stirrup and the breeding
of horses strong enough to carry a fully armed archer made the nomads a constant threat to
the more settled civilizations. The gradual break-up of the Roman Empire,
spanning several centuries after the 2nd century CE, coincided with the spread of Christianity
outward from the Middle East. The Western Roman Empire fell under the domination
of Germanic tribes in the 5th century, and these polities gradually developed into a
number of warring states, all associated in one way or another with the Catholic Church. The remaining part of the Roman Empire, in
the eastern Mediterranean, continued as what came to be called the Byzantine Empire. Centuries later, a limited unity would be
restored to western Europe through the establishment in 962 of a revived “Roman Empire”, later
called the Holy Roman Empire, comprising a number of states in what is now Germany, Austria,
Switzerland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Italy, and parts of France.In China, dynasties would
rise and fall, but, by sharp contrast to the Mediterranean-European world, dynastic unity
would be restored. After the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty
and the demise of the Three Kingdoms, nomadic tribes from the north began to invade in the
4th century, eventually conquering areas of northern China and setting up many small kingdoms. The Sui Dynasty successfully reunified the
whole of China in 581, and laid the foundations for a Chinese golden age under the Tang dynasty
(618–907).==Post-classical history==The Post-classical Era, though deriving its
name from the Eurocentric era of “Classical antiquity”, refers to a broader geographic
sweep. The era is commonly dated from the 5th-century
fall of the Western Roman Empire, which fragmented into many separate kingdoms, some of which
would later be confederated under the Holy Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire survived
until late in the Post-classical, or Medieval, period. The Post-classical period also encompasses
the Early Muslim conquests, the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, and the commencement and
expansion of the Arab slave trade, followed by the Mongol invasions in the Middle East
and Central Asia, and the founding around 1280 of the Ottoman Empire. South Asia saw a series of middle kingdoms
of India, followed by the establishment of Islamic empires in India. In western Africa, the Mali Empire and the
Songhai Empire developed. On the southeast coast of Africa, Arabic ports
were established where gold, spices, and other commodities were traded. This allowed Africa to join the Southeast
Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this, along with Muslim culture, resulted
in the Swahili culture. China experienced the successive Sui, Tang,
Song, Yuan, and early Ming dynasties. Middle Eastern trade routes along the Indian
Ocean, and the Silk Road through the Gobi Desert, provided limited economic and cultural
contact between Asian and European civilizations. During the same period, civilizations in the
Americas, such as the Inca, Maya, and Aztecs, reached their zenith; all would be compromised
by, then conquered after, contact with European colonists at the beginning of the Modern period.===Middle East, North Africa, and Central
Asia===Prior to the advent of Islam in the 7th century,
the Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Sasanian Empire, which
frequently fought each other for control of several disputed regions. This was also a cultural battle, with the
Byzantine Hellenistic and Christian culture competing against the Persian Iranian traditions
and Zoroastrian religion. The formation of the Islamic religion created
a new contender that quickly surpassed both of these empires. Islam greatly affected the political, economic,
and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East. From their centre on the Arabian Peninsula,
Muslims began their expansion during the early Postclassical Era. By 750 CE, they came to conquer most of the
Near East, North Africa, and parts of Europe, ushering in an era of learning, science, and
invention known as the Islamic Golden Age. The knowledge and skills of the ancient Near
East, Greece, and Persia were preserved in the Postclassical Era by Muslims, who also
added new and important innovations from outside, such as the manufacture of paper from China
and decimal positional numbering from India. Much of this learning and development can
be linked to geography. Even prior to Islam’s presence, the city of
Mecca had served as a centre of trade in Arabia, and the Islamic prophet Muhammad himself was
a merchant. With the new Islamic tradition of the Hajj,
the pilgrimage to Mecca, the city became even more a centre for exchanging goods and ideas. The influence held by Muslim merchants over
African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and
expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to the Europeans, Indians, and
Chinese, who based their societies on an agricultural landholding nobility. Merchants brought goods and their Islamic
faith to China, India, Southeast Asia, and the kingdoms of western Africa, and returned
with new discoveries and inventions. Motivated by religion and dreams of conquest,
European leaders launched a number of Crusades to try to roll back Muslim power and retake
the Holy Land. The Crusades were ultimately unsuccessful
and served more to weaken the Byzantine Empire, especially with the 1204 sack of Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire began to lose increasing
amounts of territory to the Ottoman Turks. Arab domination of the region ended in the
mid-11th century with the arrival of the Seljuq Turks, migrating south from the Turkic homelands
in Central Asia. In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders,
the Mongol Empire, swept through the region but were eventually eclipsed by the Turks
and the founding of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day Turkey around 1280.North Africa
saw the rise of polities formed by the Berbers, such as the Marinid dynasty in Morocco, the
Zayyanid dynasty in Algeria, and the Hafsid dynasty in Tunisia. The region will later be called the Barbary
Coast and will host pirates and privateers who will use several North African ports for
their raids against the coastal towns of several European countries in search of slaves to
be sold in North African markets as part of the Barbary slave trade. Starting with the Sui dynasty (581–618),
the Chinese began expanding into eastern Central Asia, and confronted Turkic nomads, who were
becoming the most dominant ethnic group in Central Asia. Originally the relationship was largely cooperative,
but in 630 the Tang dynasty began an offensive against the Turks, capturing areas of the
Mongolian Ordos Desert. In the 8th century, Islam began to penetrate
the region and soon became the sole faith of most of the population, though Buddhism
remained strong in the east. The desert nomads of Arabia could militarily
match the nomads of the steppe, and the early Arab Empire gained control over parts of Central
Asia. The Hephthalites were the most powerful of
the nomad groups in the 6th and 7th centuries, and controlled much of the region. In the 9th through 13th centuries the region
was divided among several powerful states, including the Samanid Empire the Seljuk Empire,
and the Khwarezmid Empire. The largest empire to rise out of Central
Asia developed when Genghis Khan united the tribes of Mongolia. The Mongol Empire spread to comprise all of
Central Asia and China as well as large parts of Russia and the Middle East. After Genghis Khan died in 1227, most of Central
Asia continued to be dominated by a successor state, Chagatai Khanate. In 1369, Timur, a Turkic leader in the Mongol
military tradition, conquered most of the region and founded the Timurid Empire. Timur’s large empire collapsed soon after
his death, however. The region then became divided into a series
of smaller khanates that were created by the Uzbeks. These included the Khanate of Khiva, the Khanate
of Bukhara, and the Khanate of Kokand, all of whose capitals are located in present-day
Uzbekistan.===Europe===Europe during the Early Middle Ages was characterized
by depopulation, deurbanization, and barbarian invasion, all of which had begun in Late Antiquity. The barbarian invaders formed their own new
kingdoms in the remains of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle
East, once part of the Eastern Roman Empire, became part of the Caliphate after conquest
by Muhammad’s successors. Although there were substantial changes in
society and political structures, most of the new kingdoms incorporated as many of the
existing Roman institutions as they could. Christianity expanded in western Europe, and
monasteries were founded. In the 7th and 8th centuries the Franks, under
the Carolingian dynasty, established an empire covering much of western Europe; it lasted
until the 9th century, when it succumbed to pressure from new invaders—the Vikings,
Magyars, and Saracens. During the High Middle Ages, which began after
1000, the population of Europe increased greatly as technological and agricultural innovations
allowed trade to flourish and crop yields to increase. Manorialism—the organization of peasants
into villages that owed rents and labour service to nobles—and feudalism—a political structure
whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return
for the right to rents from lands and manors—were two of the ways of organizing medieval society
that developed during the High Middle Ages. Kingdoms became more centralized after the
decentralizing effects of the breakup of the Carolingian Empire. The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were
an attempt by western Christians from nations such as the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom
of France and the Holy Roman Empire to regain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
and succeeded for long enough to establish some Christian states in the Near East. Italian merchants imported Armenians, Balts,
Circassians, Georgians, Greeks and Slavs to work as household slaves and in processing
sugar. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism
and the founding of universities, while the building of Gothic cathedrals was one of the
outstanding artistic achievements of the age. The Late Middle Ages were marked by difficulties
and calamities. Famine, plague, and war devastated the population
of western Europe. The Black Death alone killed approximately
75 to 200 million people between 1347 and 1350. It was one of the deadliest pandemics in human
history. Starting in Asia, the disease reached Mediterranean
and western Europe during the late 1340s, and killed tens of millions of Europeans in
six years; between a third and a half of the population perished. The Middle Ages witnessed the first sustained
urbanization of northern and western Europe. Many modern European states owe their origins
to events unfolding in the Middle Ages; present European political boundaries are, in many
regards, the result of military and dynastic events during this tumultuous period. The Middle Ages lasted until the beginning
of the Early modern period in the 16th century, marked by the rise of nation states, the division
of Western Christianity in the Reformation, the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance,
and the beginnings of European overseas expansion which allowed for the Columbian Exchange. In Central and Eastern Europe, in 1386, the
Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (the latter including territories of modern
Belarus and Ukraine), facing depredations by the Teutonic Knights and later also threats
from Muscovy, the Crimean Tatars, and the Ottoman Empire, formed a personal union through
the marriage of Poland’s Queen Jadwiga to Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila, who became
King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. For the next four centuries, until the 18th-century
Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Prussia, Russia, and Austria, the two polities
conducted a federated condominium, long Europe’s largest state, which welcomed diverse ethnicities
and religions, including most of the world’s Jews, furthered scientific thought (e.g.,
Copernicus’s heliocentric theory), and—in a last-ditch effort to preserve their sovereignty—adopted
the Constitution of 3 May 1791, the world’s second modern written constitution after the
U.S. Constitution that went into effect in 1789.===Sub-Saharan Africa===Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa was home to many
different civilizations. The Kingdom of Aksum declined in the 7th century
as Islam cut it off from its Christian allies and its people moved further into the Ethiopian
Highlands for protection. They eventually gave way to the Zagwe dynasty
who are famed for their rock cut architecture at Lalibela. The Zagwe would then fall to the Solomonic
dynasty who claimed descent from the Aksumite emperors and would rule the country well into
the 20th century. In the West African Sahel region, many Islamic
empires rose, such as the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, and the Kanem–Bornu
Empire. They controlled the trans-Saharan trade in
gold, ivory, salt and slaves. South of the Sahel, civilizations rose in
the coastal forests where horses and camels could not survive. These include the Yoruba city of Ife, noted
for its art, and the Oyo Empire, the Kingdom of Benin of the Edo people centred in Benin
City, the Igbo Kingdom of Nri which produced advanced bronze art at Igbo-Ukwu, and the
Akan who are noted for their intricate architecture.Central Africa saw the birth of several states, including
the Kingdom of Kongo. In what is now modern Southern Africa, native
Africans created various kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Mutapa. They flourished through trade with the Swahili
people on the East African coast. They built large defensive stone structures
without mortar such as Great Zimbabwe, capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Khami, capital
of Kingdom of Butua, and Danangombe (Dhlo-Dhlo), capital of the Rozwi Empire. The Swahili people themselves were the inhabitants
of the East African coast from Kenya to Mozambique who traded extensively with Asians and Arabs,
who introduced them to Islam. They built many port cities such as Mombasa,
Zanzibar and Kilwa, which were known to Chinese sailors under Zheng He and Islamic geographers.===South Asia===In northern India, after the fall (550 CE)
of the Gupta Empire, the region was divided into a complex and fluid network of smaller
kingly states. Early Muslim incursions began in the west
in 712 CE, when the Arab Umayyad Caliphate annexed much of present-day Pakistan. Arab military advance was largely halted at
that point, but Islam still spread in India, largely due to the influence of Arab merchants
along the western coast. The Tripartite Struggle for control of northern
India took place in the ninth century. The struggle was between the Pratihara Empire,
the Pala Empire and the Rashtrakuta Empire. Some of the important states that emerged
in India at this time included the Bahmani Sultanate and the Vijayanagara Empire. Post-classical dynasties in South India included
those of the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, the Cholas, the Islamic Mughals, the Marathas
and the Mysores. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy,
and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings.===East Asia===After a period of relative disunity, China
was reunified by the Sui dynasty in 581 and under the succeeding Tang dynasty (618–907)
China entered a Golden Age. The Tang Empire competed with the Tibetan
Empire for control of areas in Inner and Central Asia. The Tang dynasty eventually splintered, however,
and after half a century of turmoil the Song dynasty reunified China, when it was, according
to William McNeill, the “richest, most skilled, and most populous country on earth”. Pressure from nomadic empires to the north
became increasingly urgent. By 1142, North China had been lost to the
Jurchens in the Jin–Song Wars, and the Mongol Empire conquered all of China in 1279, along
with almost half of Eurasia’s landmass. After about a century of Mongol Yuan dynasty
rule, the ethnic Chinese reasserted control with the founding of the Ming dynasty (1368). In Japan, the imperial lineage had been established
by this time, and during the Asuka period (538–710) the Yamato Province developed
into a clearly centralized state. Buddhism was introduced, and there was an
emphasis on the adoption of elements of Chinese culture and Confucianism. The Nara period of the 8th century marked
the emergence of a strong Japanese state and is often portrayed as a golden age. During this period, the imperial government
undertook great public works, including government offices, temples, roads, and irrigation systems. The Heian period (794 to 1185) saw the peak
of imperial power, followed by the rise of militarized clans, and the beginning of Japanese
feudalism. The feudal period of Japanese history, dominated
by powerful regional lords (daimyōs) and the military rule of warlords (shōguns) such
as the Ashikaga shogunate and Tokugawa shogunate, stretched from 1185 to 1868. The emperor remained, but mostly as a figurehead,
and the power of merchants was weak. Postclassical Korea saw the end of the Three
Kingdoms era, the three kingdoms being Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Silla conquered Baekje in 660, and Goguryeo
in 668, marking the beginning of the North–South States Period (남북국시대), with Unified
Silla in the south and Balhae, a successor state to Goguryeo, in the north. In 892 CE, this arrangement reverted to the
Later Three Kingdoms, with Goguryeo (then called Taebong and eventually named Goryeo)
emerging as dominant, unifying the entire peninsula by 936. The founding Goryeo dynasty ruled until 1392,
succeeded by the Joseon dynasty, which ruled for approximately 500 years.===Southeast Asia===The beginning of the Middle Ages in Southeast
Asia saw the fall (550 CE) of the Kingdom of Funan to the Chenla Empire, which was then
replaced by the Khmer Empire (802 CE). The Khmer’s capital city Angkor was the largest
city in the world prior to the industrial age and contained over a thousand temples,
the most famous being Angkor Wat. The Sukhothai (1238 CE) and Ayutthaya (1351
CE) kingdoms were major powers of the Thai people, who were influenced by the Khmer. Starting in the 9th century, the Pagan Kingdom
rose to prominence in modern Myanmar. Other notable kingdoms of the period include
the Srivijayan Empire and the Lavo Kingdom (both coming into prominence in the 7th century),
the Champa and the Hariphunchai (both about 750), the Đại Việt (968), Lan Na (13th
century), Majapahit (1293), Lan Xang (1354), and the Kingdom of Ava (1364). Taiwanese indigenous peoples formed tribal
alliances such as the Kingdom of Middag. It was during this period that Islam spread
to present-day Indonesia (beginning in the 13th century) and saw the emergenece of the
Malay states, including the Malacca Sultanate and the Bruneian Empire. Several Philippine polities have also risen
during this period such as Caboloan, the Rajahnate of Maynila, the Rajahnate of Cebu, and the
Sultanate of Sulu.===Oceania===In the region of Oceania, the Tuʻi Tonga
Empire was founded in the 10th century CE and expanded between 1200 and 1500. Tongan culture, language, and hegemony spread
widely throughout Eastern Melanesia, Micronesia and Central Polynesia during this period,
influencing East ‘Uvea, Rotuma, Futuna, Samoa and Niue, as well as specific islands / parts
of Micronesia (Kiribati, Pohnpei and miscellaneous outliers), Vanuatu and New Caledonia (specifically,
the Loyalty Islands, with the main island being predominantly populated by the Melanesian
Kanak people and their cultures). At around the same time, a powerful thalassocracy
appeared in Eastern Polynesia centred around the Society Islands, specifically on the sacred
Taputapuatea marae, which drew in Eastern Polynesian colonists from places as far away
as Hawaii, New Zealand (Aotearoa), and the Tuamotu Islands for political, spiritual and
economic reasons, until the unexplained collapse of regular long-distance voyaging in the Eastern
Pacific a few centuries before Europeans began exploring the area. Indigenous written records from this period
are virtually non-existent, as it seems that all Pacific Islanders, with the possible exception
of the enigmatic Rapa Nui and their currently undecipherable Rongorongo script, had no writing
systems of any kind until after their introduction by European colonists; however, some indigenous
prehistories can be estimated and academically reconstructed through careful, judicious analysis
of native oral traditions, colonial ethnography, archaeology, physical anthropology and linguistics
research.===Americas===In North America, this period saw the rise
of the Mississippian culture in the modern-day United States c. 800 CE, marked by the extensive
12th-century urban complex at Cahokia. The Ancestral Puebloans and their predecessors
(9th – 13th centuries) built extensive permanent settlements, including stone structures that
would remain the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century. In Mesoamerica, the Teotihuacan civilization
fell and the Classic Maya collapse occurred. The Aztec Empire came to dominate much of
Mesoamerica in the 14th and 15th centuries. In South America, the 14th and 15th centuries
saw the rise of the Inca. The Inca Empire of Tawantinsuyu, with its
capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andes Mountain Range, making it the most extensive
Pre-Columbian civilization. The Inca were prosperous and advanced, known
for an excellent road system and unrivaled masonry.==Modern history==Modern history (the “modern period,” the “modern
era,” “modern times”) refers to the history of the period following the Middle Ages, spanning
from about 1500 to the present day. In contrast, “Contemporary history” is history
that covers events from around 1945 to the present day.===Early modern period===”Early modern period” is a term used by historians
to refer to the period between the Middle Ages (Post-classical history) and the Industrial
Revolution—roughly 1500 to 1800. The Early Modern period is characterized by
the rise of science, and by increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic
politics, and the nation state. Capitalist economies began their rise, initially
in northern Italian republics such as Genoa. The Early Modern period also saw the rise
and dominance of the mercantilist economic theory. As such, the Early Modern period represents
the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism,
serfdom, and the power of the Catholic Church. The period includes the Protestant Reformation,
the disastrous Thirty Years’ War, the Age of Discovery, European colonial expansion,
the peak of European witch-hunting, the Scientific revolution, and the Age of Enlightenment.====Renaissance====Europe’s Renaissance, meaning “rebirth,” referring
to the rebirth of classical culture, beginning in the 14th century and extending into the
16th, consisted of the rediscovery of the classical world’s scientific contributions,
and of the economic and social rise of Europe. The Renaissance also engendered a culture
of inquisitiveness which ultimately led to Humanism and the Scientific Revolution. Although it saw social and political upheaval
and revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, the Renaissance is perhaps known best for
its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and
Michelangelo, who inspired the term “Renaissance man.”====European expansion====During this period, European powers came to
dominate most of the world. Although the most developed regions of European
classical civilization were more urbanized than any other region of the world, European
civilization had undergone a lengthy period of gradual decline and collapse. During the Early Modern Period, Europe was
able to regain its dominance; historians still debate the causes. Europe’s success in this period stands in
contrast to other regions. For example, one of the most advanced civilizations
of the Middle Ages was China. It had developed an advanced monetary economy
by 1000 CE. China had a free peasantry who were no longer
subsistence farmers, and could sell their produce and actively participate in the market. According to Adam Smith, writing in the 18th
century, China had long been one of the richest, most fertile, best cultivated, most industrious,
most urbanized, and most prosperous countries in the world. It enjoyed a technological advantage and had
a monopoly in cast iron production, piston bellows, suspension bridge construction, printing,
and the compass. However, it seemed to have long since stopped
progressing. Marco Polo, who visited China in the 13th
century, describes its cultivation, industry, and populousness almost in the same terms
as travelers would in the 18th century. One theory of Europe’s rise holds that Europe’s
geography played an important role in its success. The Middle East, India and China are all ringed
by mountains and oceans but, once past these outer barriers, are nearly flat. By contrast, the Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines,
Carpathians and other mountain ranges run through Europe, and the continent is also
divided by several seas. This gave Europe some degree of protection
from the peril of Central Asian invaders. Before the era of firearms, these nomads were
militarily superior to the agricultural states on the periphery of the Eurasian continent
and, as they broke out into the plains of northern India or the valleys of China, were
all but unstoppable. These invasions were often devastating. The Golden Age of Islam was ended by the Mongol
sack of Baghdad in 1258. India and China were subject to periodic invasions,
and Russia spent a couple of centuries under the Mongol-Tatar yoke. Central and western Europe, logistically more
distant from the Central Asian heartland, proved less vulnerable to these threats. Geography contributed to important geopolitical
differences. For most of their histories, China, India,
and the Middle East were each unified under a single dominant power that expanded until
it reached the surrounding mountains and deserts. In 1600 the Ottoman Empire controlled almost
all the Middle East, the Ming dynasty ruled China, and the Mughal Empire held sway over
India. By contrast, Europe was almost always divided
into a number of warring states. Pan-European empires, with the notable exception
of the Roman Empire, tended to collapse soon after they arose. Another doubtless important geographic factor
in the rise of Europe was the Mediterranean Sea, which, for millennia, had functioned
as a maritime superhighway fostering the exchange of goods, people, ideas and inventions. Nearly all the agricultural civilizations
have been heavily constrained by their environments. Productivity remained low, and climatic changes
easily instigated boom-and-bust cycles that brought about civilizations’ rise and fall. By about 1500, however, there was a qualitative
change in world history. Technological advance and the wealth generated
by trade gradually brought about a widening of possibilities. Many have also argued that Europe’s institutions
allowed it to expand, that property rights and free-market economics were stronger than
elsewhere due to an ideal of freedom peculiar to Europe. In recent years, however, scholars such as
Kenneth Pomeranz have challenged this view. Europe’s maritime expansion unsurprisingly—given
the continent’s geography—was largely the work of its Atlantic states: Portugal, Spain,
England, France, and the Netherlands. Initially the Portuguese and Spanish Empires
were the predominant conquerors and sources of influence, and their union resulted in
the Iberian Union, the first global empire on which the “sun never set”. Soon the more northern English, French and
Dutch began to dominate the Atlantic. In a series of wars fought in the 17th and
18th centuries, culminating with the Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the new world power.====Regional developments====Persia came under the rule of the Safavid
Empire in 1501, succeeded by the Afsharid Empire in 1736, the Zand Empire in 1751, and
the Qajar Empire in 1794. Areas to the north and east in Central Asia
were held by Uzbeks and Pashtuns. The Ottoman Empire, after taking Constantinople
in 1453, quickly gained control of the Middle East, the Balkans, and most of North Africa. In Africa, this period saw a decline in many
civilizations and an advancement in others. The Swahili Coast declined after coming under
the Portuguese Empire and later the Omani Empire. In west Africa, the Songhai Empire fell to
the Moroccans in 1591 when they invaded with guns. The South African Kingdom of Zimbabwe gave
way to smaller kingdoms such as Mutapa, Butua, and Rozvi. Ethiopia suffered from the 1531 invasion from
neighbouring Muslim Adal Sultanate, and in 1769 entered the Zemene Mesafint (Age of Princes)
during which the Emperor became a figurehead and the country was ruled by warlords, though
the royal line later would recover under Emperor Tewodros II. The Ajuran Sultanate, in the Horn of Africa,
began to decline in the 17th century, succeeded by the Geledi Sultanate. Other civilizations in Africa advanced during
this period. The Oyo Empire experienced its golden age,
as did the Kingdom of Benin. The Ashanti Empire rose to power in what is
modern day Ghana in 1670. The Kingdom of Kongo also thrived during this
period. European exploration of Africa reached its
zenith at this time. In China, the Ming gave way in 1644 to the
Qing, the last Chinese imperial dynasty, which would rule until 1912. Japan experienced its Azuchi–Momoyama period
(1568–1603), followed by the Edo period (1603–1868). The Korean Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) ruled
throughout this period, successfully repelling 16th- and 17th-century invasions from Japan
and China. Japan and China were significantly affected
during this period by expanded maritime trade with Europe, particularly the Portuguese in
Japan. During the Edo period, Japan would pursue
isolationist policies, to eliminate foreign influences. On the Indian subcontinent, the Delhi Sultanate
and the Deccan sultanates would give way, beginning in the 16th century, to the Mughal
Empire. Starting in the northwest, the Mughal Empire
would by the late 17th century come to rule the entire subcontinent, except for the southernmost
Indian provinces, which would remain independent. Against the Muslim Mughal Empire, the Hindu
Maratha Empire was founded on the west coast in 1674, gradually gaining territory—a majority
of present-day India—from the Mughals over several decades, particularly in the Mughal–Maratha
Wars (1681–1701). The Maratha Empire would in 1818 fall under
the control of the British East India Company, with all former Maratha and Mughal authority
devolving in 1858 to the British Raj. In 1511 the Portuguese overthrew the Malacca
Sultanate in present-day Malaysia and Indonesian Sumatra. The Portuguese held this important trading
territory (and the valuable associated navigational strait) until overthrown by the Dutch in 1641. The Johor Sultanate, centred on the southern
tip of the Malay Peninsula, became the dominant trading power in the region. European colonization expanded with the Dutch
in the Netherlands East Indies, the Portuguese in East Timor, and the Spanish in the Philippines. Into the 19th century, European expansion
would affect the whole of Southeast Asia, with the British in Myanmar and Malaysia and
the French in Indochina. Only Thailand would successfully resist colonization. The Pacific islands of Oceania would also
be affected by European contact, starting with the circumnavigational voyage of Ferdinand
Magellan, who landed on the Marianas and other islands in 1521. Also notable were the voyages (1642–44)
of Abel Tasman to present-day Australia, New Zealand and nearby islands, and the voyages
(1768–1779) of Captain James Cook, who made the first recorded European contact with Hawaii. Britain would found its first colony on Australia
in 1788. In the Americas, the western European powers
vigorously colonized the newly discovered continents, largely displacing the indigenous
populations, and destroying the advanced civilizations of the Aztecs and the Incas. Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France all made
extensive territorial claims, and undertook large-scale settlement, including the importation
of large numbers of African slaves. Portugal claimed Brazil. Spain claimed the rest of South America, Mesoamerica,
and southern North America. Britain colonized the east coast of North
America, and France colonized the central region of North America. Russia made incursions onto the northwest
coast of North America, with a first colony in present-day Alaska in 1784, and the outpost
of Fort Ross in present-day California in 1812. In 1762, in the midst of the Seven Years’
War, France secretly ceded most of its North American claims to Spain in the Treaty of
Fontainebleau. Thirteen of the British colonies declared
independence as the United States of America in 1776, ratified by the Treaty of Paris in
1783, ending the American Revolutionary War. Napoleon Bonaparte won France’s claims back
from Spain in the Napoleonic Wars in 1800, but sold them to the United States in 1803
as the Louisiana Purchase. In Russia, Ivan the Terrible was crowned in
1547 as the first Tsar of Russia, and by annexing the Turkic khanates in the east, transformed
Russia into a regional power. The countries of western Europe, while expanding
prodigiously through technological advancement and colonial conquest, competed with each
other economically and militarily in a state of almost constant war. Often the wars had a religious dimension,
either Catholic versus Protestant, or (primarily in eastern Europe) Christian versus Muslim. Wars of particular note include the Thirty
Years’ War, the War of the Spanish Succession, the Seven Years’ War, and the French Revolutionary
Wars. Napoleon came to power in France in 1799,
an event foreshadowing the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century.===Late Modern period=======1750–1914====The Scientific Revolution changed humanity’s
understanding of the world and led to the Industrial Revolution, a major transformation
of the world’s economies. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century
had had little immediate effect on industrial technology; only in the second half of the
18th century did scientific advances begin to be applied substantially to practical invention. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
and used new modes of production—the factory, mass production, and mechanization—to manufacture
a wide array of goods faster and using less labour than previously required. The Age of Enlightenment also led to the beginnings
of modern democracy in the late-18th century American and French Revolutions. Democracy and republicanism would grow to
have a profound effect on world events and on quality of life. After Europeans had achieved influence and
control over the Americas, imperial activities turned to the lands of Asia and Oceania. In the 19th century the European states had
social and technological advantage over Eastern lands. Britain gained control of the Indian subcontinent,
Egypt and the Malay Peninsula; the French took Indochina; while the Dutch cemented their
control over the Dutch East Indies. The British also colonized Australia, New
Zealand and South Africa with large numbers of British colonists emigrating to these colonies. Russia colonized large pre-agricultural areas
of Siberia. In the late 19th century, the European powers
divided the remaining areas of Africa. Within Europe, economic and military challenges
created a system of nation states, and ethno-linguistic groupings began to identify themselves as
distinctive nations with aspirations for cultural and political autonomy. This nationalism would become important to
peoples across the world in the 20th century. During the Second Industrial Revolution, the
world economy became reliant on coal as a fuel, as new methods of transport, such as
railways and steamships, effectively shrank the world. Meanwhile, industrial pollution and environmental
damage, present since the discovery of fire and the beginning of civilization, accelerated
drastically. The advantages that Europe had developed by
the mid-18th century were two: an entrepreneurial culture, and the wealth generated by the Atlantic
trade (including the African slave trade). By the late 16th century, silver from the
Americas accounted for the Spanish empire’s wealth. The profits of the slave trade and of West
Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution. While some historians conclude that, in 1750,
labour productivity in the most developed regions of China was still on a par with that
of Europe’s Atlantic economy, other historians like Angus Maddison hold that the per-capita
productivity of western Europe had by the late Middle Ages surpassed that of all other
regions.====1914–1945====The 20th century opened with Europe at an
apex of wealth and power, and with much of the world under its direct colonial control
or its indirect domination. Much of the rest of the world was influenced
by heavily Europeanized nations: the United States and Japan. As the century unfolded, however, the global
system dominated by rival powers was subjected to severe strains, and ultimately seemed to
yield to a more fluid structure of independent nations organized on Western models. This transformation was catalysed by wars
of unparalleled scope and devastation. World War I destroyed many of Europe’s empires
and monarchies, and weakened Britain and France. In its aftermath, powerful ideologies arose. The Russian Revolution of 1917 created the
first communist state, while the 1920s and 1930s saw militaristic fascist dictatorships
gain control in Italy, Germany, Spain and elsewhere. Ongoing national rivalries, exacerbated by
the economic turmoil of the Great Depression, helped precipitate World War II. The militaristic dictatorships of Europe and
Japan pursued an ultimately doomed course of imperialist expansionism, in the course
of which Nazi Germany orchestrated the murder of six million Jews in the Holocaust and of
millions of Poles, Russians, and other Slavs, while Imperial Japan murdered millions of
Chinese. An earlier, World War I model of genocide
had been provided by Turkey’s mass murder of Armenians. The World War II defeat of the Axis Powers
opened the way for the advance of communism into Central Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria,
Romania, Albania, China, North Vietnam, and North Korea.===Contemporary history=======1945–2000====When World War II ended in 1945, the United
Nations was founded in the hope of preventing future wars, as the League of Nations had
been formed following World War I. The war had left two countries, the United
States and the Soviet Union, with principal power to influence international affairs. Each was suspicious of the other and feared
a global spread of the other’s, respectively capitalist and communist, political-economic
model. This led to the Cold War, a forty-five-year
stand-off and arms race between the United States and its allies, on one hand, and the
Soviet Union and its allies on the other. With the development of nuclear weapons during
World War II, and with their subsequent proliferation, all of humanity were put at risk of nuclear
war between the two superpowers, as demonstrated by many incidents, most prominently the October
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Such war being viewed as impractical, the
superpowers instead waged proxy wars in non-nuclear-armed Third World countries.In China, Mao Zedong
implemented industrialization and collectivization reforms as part of the Great Leap Forward
(1958–62), leading to the starvation deaths (1959–61) of tens of millions of people. The Cold War ended in 1991, when the Soviet
Union disintegrated, in part due to inability to compete economically with the United States
and western Europe. However, the United States likewise began
to show signs of slippage in its geopolitical influence, even as its private sector, now
less inhibited by the claims of the public sector, increasingly sought private advantage
to the prejudice of the public weal.In the early postwar decades, the colonies in Asia
and Africa of the Belgian, British, Dutch, French, and other west European empires won
their formal independence. But the newly independent countries faced
challenges in the form of neocolonialism, sociopolitical disarray, poverty, illiteracy,
and endemic tropical diseases.Most Western European and Central European countries gradually
formed a political and economic community, the European Union, which expanded eastward
to include former Soviet-satellite countries. The European Union’s effectiveness was handicapped
by the immaturity of its common economic and political institutions, somewhat comparable
to the inadequacy of United States institutions under the Articles of Confederation prior
to the adoption of the U.S. Constitution that came into force in 1789. Asian, African, and South American countries
followed suit and began taking tentative steps toward forming their own respective continental
associations. Cold War preparations to deter or to fight
a third world war accelerated advances in technologies that, though conceptualized before
World War II, had been implemented for that war’s exigencies, such as jet aircraft, rocketry,
and electronic computers. In the decades after World War II, these advances
led to jet travel, artificial satellites with innumerable applications including global
positioning systems (GPS), and the Internet—inventions that have revolutionized the movement of people,
ideas, and information. However, not all scientific and technological
advances in the second half of the 20th century required an initial military impetus. That period also saw ground-breaking developments
such as the discovery of the structure of DNA, the consequent sequencing of the human
genome, the worldwide eradication of smallpox, the discovery of plate tectonics, manned and
unmanned exploration of space and of previously inaccessible parts of Earth, and foundational
discoveries in physics phenomena ranging from the smallest entities (particle physics) to
the greatest entity (physical cosmology). The century saw many global threats emerge
or become more serious or more widely recognized, including nuclear proliferation, global climate
change, air pollution, deforestation, ocean acidification and pollution, overpopulation,
deadly epidemics of microbial diseases, near-Earth asteroids and comets, supervolcano eruptions,
lethal gamma-ray bursts, geomagnetic storms, and the dwindling of natural resources (particularly
fossil fuels) worldwide.====21st century====The 21st century has been marked by growing
economic globalization and integration, with consequent increased risk to interlinked economies,
as exemplified by the Great Recession of the late 2000s and early 2010s; and by the expansion
of communications with mobile phones and the Internet, which have caused fundamental societal
changes in business, politics, and individuals’ personal lives, including the advent of social-media
platforms such as Facebook. The early 21st century saw escalating intra-
and international strife in the Near East and Afghanistan, stimulated by vast economic
disparities, by dissatisfaction with governments dominated by Western interests, by inter-ethnic
and inter-sectarian feuds, and by the longest war in the history of the United States, the
proximate cause for which was Osama bin Laden’s provocative 2001 destruction of New York City’s
World Trade Center. The Arab Spring, a revolutionary wave of uprisings
in North Africa and the Near East in the early 2010’s, produced power vacuums that led to
a resurgence of authoritarianism and the advent of reactionary groups like the Islamic State. U.S. military involvements in the Near East
and Afghanistan, along with a financial crisis and resultant recession, have drained U.S.
economic resources at a time when the U.S. and other Western countries are experiencing
mounting socioeconomic dislocations aggravated by the robotization of work and the export
of industries to cheaper-workforce countries. Meanwhile, ancient and populous Asian civilizations,
namely India and especially China, have been emerging from centuries of relative scientific,
technological, and economic dormancy to become potential economic and political rivals for
Western powers.Worldwide competition for resources has risen due to growing populations and industrialization,
especially in India, China, and Brazil. The increased demand is contributing to increased
environmental degradation and global warming. That, and a need for safe, reliable energy
supplies independent of politically volatile regions, has spurred the development of renewable
sources of energy, chiefly solar and wind energy, in place of the “fissile-fossil complex”
of nuclear energy and carbon-based energy (petroleum, coal, natural gas). In recognition of the existential threat posed
by climate change, in December 2015 195 countries signed the Paris Climate Agreement, though
in 2017 President Donald Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Agreement.International
tensions were heightened in connection with the efforts of some nuclear-armed states to
induce North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons, and to prevent Iran from developing
nuclear weapons.In May 2019 a United Nations intergovernmental scientific panel released
a report stating that, due to human activities excessively focused on economic growth, a
million of Earth’s plant and animal species are at imminent risk of extinction, which
will wreak havoc with the planet’s ecology and capacity to feed the world’s human population.==See also====Notes

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