Articles, Blog

Globalization I – The Upside: Crash Course World History #41

August 15, 2019


Hi, I’m John Green. This is Crash Course
World History and today is the penultimate episode of Crash Course. We’re gonna talk
about globalization. This was going to be the last episode, but
I just can’t quit you, World Historians. So, today we’re going to talk about globalization,
and in doing so, we’re going to talk about why we study history at all. Ooh ooh, Mr. Green! Yes, Me from the Past? We study history to get a good
grade to go to a good college to get a good job — –so you can make more money
than you would otherwise make and be a slightly larger cog among the seven billion gears that
turn the planet’s economic engine, right? And that’s fine, but if that’s why you
really study history, then you need to understand all the ways that the t-shirt you’re wearing
is both the cause and result of your ambition. This t-shirt contains the global economy:
its efficiency, its massive surplus, its hyperconnectedness, and its unsustainability. This t-shirt tells
one story of globalization. So let’s follow it. [Theme Music] So, globalization is a cultural phenomenon.
It’s reflected in contemporary artwork and population migration and linguistic changes,
but we’re going to focus, as we so often have during Crash Course, on trade. So the world today, as symbolized by our international
felt melange, experiences widespread global economic interdependence. Now, of course economic
interdependence and the accompanying cultural borrowing are nothing new. You’ll remember
that we found trade documents from the Indus Valley civilization all the way in Mesopotamia. But for a few reasons, the scale of this trade
has increased dramatically: 1. Multinational corporations have global
reach and increasing power. 2. Travel and shipping are cheap and safe.
It took about two months to cross the Atlantic in 1800. Today it takes about five hours by
plane, and less than a week by ship. 3. Governments have decreased tariffs and
regulations on international trade, leading to what is sometimes called euphemistically
”free trade.” To which I say, if this trade is so free, how come BBC America is
in the premium tier of my cable package? To understand the role that governments play
in international trade, let’s look again at this t-shirt. This t-shirt, like most t-shirts
made in the world, contains 100% American cotton. And that’s not because the U.S.
makes the best cotton or the most efficient cotton, it’s because the U.S. government
subsidizes cotton production. And that’s what makes this cotton cheaper than cotton
of similar quality from Brazil or India. But in the last 30 years, the US’s share of
cotton exports has gone down as Brazil, India, and Africa’s cotton exports go up. And that
trend will likely continue as the US moves away from its expensive cotton subsidies.
In fact, these days it’s already possible to find t-shirts with Brazilian, Indian, or Ugandan cotton,
or a mixture of cottons from all around the world. But because the American government doesn’t
subsidize industry in the way it does agricultural production, the actual spinning and weaving
of the cotton takes place in lower wage countries: Mexico, Guatemala, Vietnam, China, India,
China, China, sometimes even China. And then the finished shirts, called blanks, are usually sent to Europe
or the United States for screen printing, and then sold. You would think the most expensive part of
this process is the part where we ship this across the Pacific Ocean, turn it into this,
and then ship it back across the Pacific Ocean, but you’d be wrong. Wholesale t-shirt blanks
can cost as little as $3; the expense is in the printing, the retail side of things, and
paying the designer at Thought Bubble who was tasked with the difficult job of creating
a Mongol who is at once cute and terrifying. So contemporary global trade is pretty anarchic
and unregulated, at least by international institutions and national governments. Much
of this has to do with academic economists, mostly in the U.S. and Europe who have argued
with great success that governmental regulation diminishes prosperity by limiting growth.
Now, some nations– in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa– haven’t been particularly
keen to pursue free trade but they’ve been bullied into it by larger economies with whom
they desperately need to trade. So in the past 30 years, we’ve seen all
these emerging markets lowering their tariffs, getting rid of regulation, and privatizing
formerly state-run businesses. And they often do that to appease the International Monetary
Fund, which offers low interest loans to developing world economies with the motto: Many Strings
Attached. Now, whether these decreased regulations have
been a net positive for these developing world economies is a subject of much debate, and
we will wade into it but not until next week. First, we need to understand more about the
nature of this trade. So you’ll remember from the Industrial Revolution episode that
industrial western powers produced most of the manufactured goods, which were then sold
in international markets, but you’ll also remember that domestic consumption was extremely
important. I mean, almost all early Model T’s were built by Americans, and bought
by Americans. But since the 1960s, and especially today,
former non-industrialized parts of the world had been manufacturing consumer goods– for
domestic markets, yes, but primarily for foreign ones. This t-shirt, made in China and the
Dominican Republic before being imported to Mexico and then to the United States, is a
primary example of what I’m talking about, but so is the computer that you’re watching
me on. Your computer was probably manufactured in China, but with parts from all over the
world, especially Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. And this international manufacturing is always
finding, like, new markets too. Like, Brazil, for instance, has a huge technology sector.
They make iPads there, actually. Sorry, I’m trying to play Angry Birds. But, what all
these countries have in common is that while there is a domestic market for things like
iPads and t-shirts, the foreign markets are much, much bigger. Oh, it’s time for the
Open Letter? An open letter to Cookie Monster. But first,
let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today. Oh, it’s a cookie dough flavored
Balance Bar. For people who love cookies and pretending to be healthy. Dear Cookie Monster, Here’s the thing, man.
You don’t have a stomach. That’s why when you put a cookie in your mouth, it crumbles
up and then it just falls out of your mouth. But here’s what fascinates me, Cookie Monster.
I believe you when you say you love cookies. It doesn’t matter that you can’t actually
eat cookies because where you would have a stomach, you instead have someone’s arm.
And that, Cookie Monster, is what makes you a beautiful symbol for contemporary consumption.
You just keep eating. Even though you can’t eat. Cookie Monster, you are the best and
the worst of us. Best wishes, John Green So, although die-hard Marxists might still
resist this, by 2012 it’s become pretty obvious that global capitalism has been good
for a lot of people. It’s certainly increased worldwide economic output. And while American
autoworkers may suffer job loss, moving manufacturing jobs from high wage to lower wage countries
allows a greater number of people to live better than they did when the First and Second
Worlds monopolized manufacturing. And while I don’t want to conflate correlation and
causation, some 600 million people have emerged from poverty in the last 30 years, at least
according to the World Bank’s definition of poverty, which is living on less than $1.25
a day. Americans can argue about whether absurdly
inexpensive clothes, shoes and televisions are worth the domestic economic and social
dislocation, but for the Vietnamese worker stitching a pair of sneakers, that job represents
an opportunity for a longer, healthier and more secure life than she would have had if
those shoes were made in the U.S.A. But, before we jump on the celebratory globalization
bandwagon, let’s acknowledge that this brave new world has some side effects. For instance,
it maybe hasn’t been so good for families, it definitely has not been good for the environment,
and also there’s a chance that globalization will spark, like, the end of the human species.
But, we’re gonna talk about all that next week. For today, let’s bring on the bandwagon
and ride straight for the Thought Bubble. So these days, people move more than they
ever have. 21% of people living in Canada were born somewhere else, as was an astonishing
69% of Kuwait’s current population. Migration has become easier because: 1. Air travel is pretty cheap, especially if
you only take a few plane trips in your life, and 2. It’s relatively easy and inexpensive
to stay in touch with relatives living far away thanks to Skype, mobile phones, and inexpensive
calling cards. Also 3. Even with increased industrialization in
the developing world, economic opportunities are often much better in wealthy countries.
Remittances– money sent home by people working abroad– are now a huge driver of economic
growth in the developing world. Like, in Tajikistan, for instance, remittances are 35% of the country’s
total gross domestic product. With all these people moving around the world,
it’s not surprising that globalization also means cultural blending. When people move,
they don’t just give up their literary, culinary, artistic, and musical traditions.
Globalized culture is a bit of a paradox, though, because some people see culture today
as increasingly Americanized, right? Like, FRIENDS is currently broadcast in over 100
countries; you can find Diet Coke for sale deep in the jungles of Madagascar; the NBA
is huge in China. There are fewer languages spoken today, and probably less cultural diversity. But on the other hand, an individual’s access
to diverse cultural experience has never been greater. Bollywood movies, Swedish hip hop,
Brazilian soap operas, highlights from Congolese football matches, these are all available
to us. Culinary cultural fusion is all the rage; more novels are translated from languages
than ever before, although few are actually read; and in the surest sign of cultural globalization,
football, the world’s game, has finally reached America, where broadcasts of the greatest
collective enterprise humanity has ever known, Liverpool Football Club, got record ratings
in 2012. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Hey, one last request: Could you put me in
a Liverpool jersey? On the pitch at Anfield? Raising the premier league trophy? WITH STEVEN
GERRARD HUGGING ME? YES, JUST LIKE THAT. OH, THOUGHT BUBBLE I LOVE YOU SO MUCH. Okay, so this all brings us to how globalization
has changed us, and whether it’s for the better. Assuming you make the minimum wage
here in the United States, this t-shirt, purchased at your friendly neighborhood e-tailer dftba.com,
will cost you about three hours’ worth of work– and yes, that does include shipping.
By the time it arrives at your door, the cotton within that t-shirt will have traveled by
truck, train, ship, possibly even airplane if you opt for priority shipping. And it will
probably have travelled further than Magellan did during his famous circumnavigation of
the globe. You get all that for THREE HOURS of work; by contrast, a far less comfortable
garment several hundred years ago would have cost you ten times as much work. But these improvements have been accompanied
by change so radical that we struggle to contextualize it. Like, the human population of our planet
over time looks like this. Dang. Like, in 1800, there were a billion human beings on this planet.
And that was more than had ever been seen before. And we live more than twice as long on average
as humans did just two centuries ago, largely due to improved health care for women in childbirth
and their infants, but also thanks to antibiotics and the second agricultural revolution that
began in the 1950s, the so-called “green revolution” that saw increased use of chemical
fertilizers lead to dramatically higher crop yields. Of course, these gains haven’t been evenly
distributed around the world, but chances are if you’re watching this, you A. survived
childbirth and B. feel reasonably confident that your children will as well. That’s
a new feeling for humans. And as a parent, I can assure you, it’s a miracle, and one
to be celebrated. We study history so that we can understand
these changes, and so that we can remember both what we’ve gained and lost in getting
to where we are. Next week, our last week, we’ll look at the many facets of globalization
that aren’t causes for celebration. But for today, let’s just pause to consider
how we got from here to here, how the relentless and unquenchable ambition of humans led to
a world where the entire contents of the Library of Alexandria would fit on my iPhone along
with recordings of everything Mozart ever composed. In such a world, it’s easy to
feel that we are big and powerful, maybe even invincible. It’s easy to feel that… and also dangerous.
Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Associate producer, Danica Johnson.
And the show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself.
Our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was “Crush
Those Rebels.” If you want to suggest future phrases of the week or guess at this week’s,
you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will
be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we
say in my hometown, Don’t Forget To Be Awesome.

100 Comments

  • Reply Владимир Белочкин December 22, 2018 at 7:41 pm

    Mongols!!!!!

  • Reply Mike A December 24, 2018 at 5:17 am

    Global warming/manmade global climate change is a hoax. Cheers.

  • Reply David Stranko December 26, 2018 at 8:32 pm

    Cookie Monster can't eat; but he can chew and taste and that is what's most important

  • Reply Dojamo G December 28, 2018 at 6:45 am

    I can't believe John Green is a Leaver pool fan, he looks too cool for Leaver pool.

  • Reply Bloody_Crow January 3, 2019 at 1:45 pm

    Love that Russia doesn't exist on the board.

  • Reply Rea Ality January 4, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    In order to keep their oath of office to 'defend the Constitution', a US President must prevent the transfer of political power away from "We The People" and over to the government. The 'domestic enemy' politicians are the ones who use taxation, regulation, and the creation of government dependents to attack the US Constitution's limits on government.

  • Reply potato psoas January 5, 2019 at 4:04 am

    Is this whole series just a big DFTBA advertisement?

  • Reply asIAN 。 January 8, 2019 at 5:47 am

    wtf dis was made een 2012

  • Reply Joe Stephens January 8, 2019 at 12:32 pm

    Who’s watching in 2019!

  • Reply Eamonn Geraghty January 15, 2019 at 2:09 am

    Eww a Liverpool fan

  • Reply Andrei Burluc (student) January 15, 2019 at 6:51 pm

    8:20 is that just PewDiePie?

  • Reply MasterVDrumming January 19, 2019 at 8:44 pm

    “China, India, China, China, and sometimes even China”

  • Reply Joseph Hargrove January 22, 2019 at 10:15 pm

    I liked the silent plug of the Tyrell Corporation. I just wish I could afford one of their replicants. 😉

    richard hargrove

    Believe those who are seeking the truth. Doubt those who find it.
    — Andre Gide

  • Reply Trump2020 January 27, 2019 at 3:06 pm

    It is now 2019. Update plz… lol

  • Reply Mary Pulling January 30, 2019 at 12:16 am

    what is globalization tho 🙂

  • Reply Kim Larkin February 5, 2019 at 12:47 am

    Lol sherlock is in this video

  • Reply fcuking Sg Invain February 5, 2019 at 6:50 pm

    GLOBALIZATION IS BASICALLY WHEN SMART PANTS BUY CHEAP RAW MATERIALS FROM DUMB @#$$3$ THEN SELL EXPENSIVE PRODUCTS PRODUCED FROM THOSE CHEAP RAW MATERIALS…. HAHAHAHHA SO THE SMART GOT SURPLUS, THE DUMB GOT DEFICIT. WELCOME TO ECONOMY 101.

  • Reply Prithvi Prakash February 7, 2019 at 7:58 am

    John Green is a Liverpool fan?

  • Reply Kevuilón February 9, 2019 at 12:39 pm

    LIVERPOOOOOL

  • Reply Keeniah Gilchrist February 9, 2019 at 2:12 pm

    This is real good to learn

  • Reply KDMainia 07 February 11, 2019 at 11:31 pm

    Why my teacher make me watch this 7 years later?

  • Reply Ashley Joseph Marcelle February 13, 2019 at 7:21 pm

    Lol this guy loves Liverpool

  • Reply Kiven Lim February 18, 2019 at 12:42 pm

    9:05 He said the f word xd

  • Reply Shubham Mittal February 22, 2019 at 2:09 am

    Local awareness common awareness basic awareness are must always also….. Be real be practical..

  • Reply Shubham Mittal February 22, 2019 at 2:10 am

    Aaam baato, aam cheezo, mulbhoot baato chezzo, najdeeki batoo ka pta hona bhut bhut jyada jrrori h..

  • Reply Nikolay Nikolov Valkanov February 26, 2019 at 5:05 pm

    Who is in charge of CrashCourse?

  • Reply Nazik Adam March 4, 2019 at 2:36 pm

    Nah. I am using my phone to watch this.

  • Reply Califul Dance March 5, 2019 at 9:14 pm

    Where's australia on the international felt melange. Did you forget about us aussies too?

  • Reply Jake Potts March 7, 2019 at 3:56 am

    Ew Liverpool

  • Reply John Yohann March 10, 2019 at 2:13 am

    We need APATHY! I know it sounds weird, but if everyone were relatively apathetic, there'd never have been wars, murders, or violence. I don't mean apathetic in the sense of not even writing letters to the gov't, or voting. But in the sense of always weighing both sides, and not letting emotion takes us away from moderation, toward extremism. We all contributed to the world situation, in varying degrees. And too many chiefs spoil the soup. Politicians know what's going on- they're consulted by experts, and the public, from both 'sides' all the time. All the good that's been done has been by collaboration. The bad, due to the opposite.

  • Reply vickie the dickie March 11, 2019 at 11:49 pm

    8:25 oh honey, brazilian soap operas are a LOT less brown than THAT

  • Reply Badal prakash March 12, 2019 at 3:04 am

    Your map of INDIA is incomplete!

  • Reply STEVEN LAW March 12, 2019 at 5:08 pm

    bollywood is garbage

  • Reply zPhokus March 17, 2019 at 8:34 pm

    This guy is a freaking nerd

  • Reply Kannan Ravinther March 18, 2019 at 3:03 pm

    Nice to know about globalization..it is actually a great way to know how a particalar product is manufactured in different countries..and also the increase in technology has brought the price reduction of transport,connectivity with loved ones and also greater opportunities in developed countries.

  • Reply Richard Guo March 26, 2019 at 8:23 am

    Excuse me guys, what's the meaning of "cookie monster"?

  • Reply jaafar ameen March 28, 2019 at 7:12 pm

    Make an episode about saddam hussain raise to power

  • Reply Vincent van Gaalen April 2, 2019 at 12:37 pm

    boy, there is a phenomonon called breathing you know

  • Reply R Jay April 3, 2019 at 9:06 am

    9:04 Go Blues!

  • Reply Kylie Perlow April 5, 2019 at 12:51 am

    Studying for the test tm, gonna fail

  • Reply LissaAnn Castro April 10, 2019 at 4:23 am

    someone pls define globalization in two to three sentences and give me an example for my exam 😭❤️❤️

  • Reply Connor Fogleman April 11, 2019 at 2:57 am

    stevie g!!

  • Reply Zach Mazur Lazur April 16, 2019 at 5:54 pm

    Love the vids. My teacher made me watch this and assure questions though so make it shorter.

  • Reply Scaredy Cat April 18, 2019 at 3:25 am

    preparing for an ap test tomorrow lmaoo

  • Reply NotFakeNowTake yt April 19, 2019 at 9:05 pm

    I built my computer

  • Reply N Marrs April 20, 2019 at 3:55 pm

    And yes that does include shipping.

  • Reply Nolan 320 April 20, 2019 at 11:22 pm

    my computer was manufactured in my own home 😉

  • Reply Sabrina Mitchell April 22, 2019 at 5:18 am

    I used to watch these episodes for fun, not for school… luv the old days

  • Reply Harper Clarkson April 24, 2019 at 11:30 pm

    1:49 DAVID TENNANT

  • Reply Noah Saldivar April 25, 2019 at 1:26 pm

    Who else is watching this in class because their teacher told them to?

  • Reply Brett Thielen April 26, 2019 at 7:01 pm

    hahah liverpool are not winning the premier league

  • Reply Soccerates 8 April 30, 2019 at 11:13 pm

    He says he's a Liverpool fan but he wore a United jersey in one of the previous episodes

  • Reply Joey May 3, 2019 at 11:24 pm

    funny and useful. thank you

  • Reply Aidan Hennes May 6, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    Who’s watching in world studies?????

  • Reply Elizabeth Elk May 7, 2019 at 5:15 am

    Binging these to study for AP exams lol

  • Reply AJ Papakee May 7, 2019 at 5:27 pm

    He said “from here (natives/indigenous peoples) to here (America)” lmao John green you should know best of all people, it’s called white supremacy and “”divide and conquer””

  • Reply Eric Pinteralli May 8, 2019 at 2:26 pm

    10:22 tHeSe GaInS hAvEn'T bEeN eVeNlY dIsTrIbUtEd ArOuNd ThE wOrLd

  • Reply Vikeing Blade May 10, 2019 at 1:01 am

    Hey, I'm reading "Bajo en la Misma Estrella" ahora mismo…

  • Reply el leider May 11, 2019 at 12:28 am

    Got to have that Fault in Our Stars reference 🙂

  • Reply Nora O May 12, 2019 at 8:05 pm

    If I get a 5 on the AP test I will buy all of John Green's books 5 times each.

  • Reply salma the steam engine May 12, 2019 at 11:44 pm

    angry birds haha

    what a simple time

  • Reply Cassidy Micah May 15, 2019 at 10:45 am

    My Honours World History class has watched your videos at the end of the year as a recap of everything we have learned. These videos have been incredibly concise and helpful to studying for our final. They are funny and interesting, but still teach us so much in the span of around 10 minutes. We have loved it!! Thank you so much!!

  • Reply Eli W. May 16, 2019 at 12:12 am

    Talks about cultural blending and access to diverse cultures but doesn't mention kpop. I thought you were better than this, John.

  • Reply Mezzo Forte May 16, 2019 at 12:32 am

    Chelsea is better

  • Reply The Krusty Kebab May 16, 2019 at 1:01 am

    6:45

  • Reply ๔єlคภєy May 16, 2019 at 3:47 am

    AP test in 8 hours…

  • Reply Nolan Clous May 17, 2019 at 5:39 pm

    bruh

  • Reply M Nix May 18, 2019 at 6:07 am

    You need to up date this. Things sure have changed

  • Reply Dixie Hamilton May 19, 2019 at 7:25 am

    Globalization is actually self destructive

  • Reply suruchi sharma May 20, 2019 at 10:37 am

    I am gonna use that last phrase "also dangerous " in my answer tommorow.THANKS FOR THE KNOWLEDGE

  • Reply Olivia May 22, 2019 at 11:11 pm

    If I get a 5 on the AP tomorrow, I'll buy that shirt.

  • Reply X X May 28, 2019 at 4:48 am

    Hoping Liverpool beats Tottenham. -Gooner

  • Reply Erich Kruger May 28, 2019 at 8:04 pm

    this is one of the only times I ever have disagreed with john. capitalization is a social construct that does more bad then good, and makes the rich richer and the poor poorer. and if you've noticed, the sneaker workers in Vietnam are not suddenly rich due to capitalism's rise. the average income of workers in Vietnam is 150 us dollars a month. as i, i have to disagree on this one.

    but i love crash course so keep making these great educational videos:)

  • Reply Kevin McMahon May 29, 2019 at 6:46 am

    Trump and other leaders are now realizing that Globalization is bad for the home town economy. Big business has moved their call centers, factories and labour intensive industries to the 2nd and 3rd world. Since 1995 vast amounts of money have gone into those economies a lifted those populations into the low and middle class. There is less poverty in the world, generally. Wages growth in the 1st world has been stagnant.

  • Reply illiterate thug May 30, 2019 at 5:59 pm

    Still no prem for the scousers, eh?

  • Reply Chris Van Bekkum May 31, 2019 at 2:49 am

    Mostly a transfer of wealth from industrial , to developing countries.

  • Reply sharma sharma June 1, 2019 at 8:14 am

    kya khaya tha bhai etni jldi bolra h … centre fruit h kya samne

  • Reply gurkdoinwork June 2, 2019 at 3:38 pm

    S/O Liverpool FC winning UEFA championship yesterday

  • Reply Rudy Lowery June 3, 2019 at 12:34 am

    globalization is all about the sodomising of the world's population spreading degeneracy and then slavery

  • Reply Shreeya Mittal June 3, 2019 at 6:01 am

    10:27
    Nope, I didn't, actualy.

  • Reply Van Radosevich June 4, 2019 at 4:36 pm

    My advise: pass the test and then do your own research. This stinks of indoctrination. He leaves out that the global elites are leaving the borders undefended to allow illegal immigration. They are driving open borders illegally and without democratic consent. Of course, you already know this. Only 1.2 % of viewers even had an opinion.

  • Reply Lee-Anne Castle June 6, 2019 at 6:23 pm

    Do you not breathe?

  • Reply Adrienne Vance June 9, 2019 at 12:05 pm

    In no way is globalization a good thing, only an idiot liberal would believe this garbage

  • Reply Taras Gogol June 9, 2019 at 4:26 pm

    Sorry @guys_who_watch_it_only_for_AP_exam, but I think the real joy of this content is available only for free curious audience 😉

  • Reply Srisha V June 11, 2019 at 11:43 pm

    y'all IB/honours exams are gonna be the death of me

  • Reply A A June 21, 2019 at 1:02 am

    Ok, I saw David Tennant. Ok. Ok. Ok.

  • Reply Alex Rator June 21, 2019 at 1:41 pm

    This t shirt tell one message: the mongols are the exception

  • Reply Alex Rator June 21, 2019 at 1:47 pm

    China, China, China, China… Made in China

  • Reply Time Keeper June 29, 2019 at 1:17 pm

    Useless talking fast with superficial information

  • Reply Lewis Kenny July 1, 2019 at 11:22 am

    Here’s a like just because of you’re love for Liverpool! 👍🏻

  • Reply Charlie Snodin July 5, 2019 at 10:04 pm

    Liverpool way

  • Reply 67NewEngland July 7, 2019 at 1:48 am

    10:04. – How does improved healthcare for woman during child birth effect us living longer? I can see it effecting the world population, but life longevity?.

  • Reply Rif malik July 12, 2019 at 12:21 am

    So, what did we learn today?

  • Reply C Trevor Manika July 19, 2019 at 9:47 am

    You speak too fast. Due that I have yo listen to this atleast 3 more times to actually get a thought on what you’re trying to say.

  • Reply That Asshole July 24, 2019 at 12:59 pm

    Football = AFL

  • Reply Debi Kinman July 30, 2019 at 1:17 pm

    Almost a cartoon.

  • Reply zubi afridi August 1, 2019 at 12:01 pm

    Ur materials and knowledge are superb, but please speak slowly. Only native speakers can easily understand what u say. Others face problems😑😑

  • Reply PancakeNinja6 August 10, 2019 at 5:24 pm

    Watching for an AP summer assignment in 2019. I remember watching it with my brother when it came out.

  • Reply Teresa Riegg August 13, 2019 at 12:26 am

    What is an example of globalization

  • Reply Matt Edwards August 13, 2019 at 10:37 pm

    The very entry to this video made me shout yaaas

    Your researchers are incredible and do a brilliant job. You present incredibly up to date academic information in a very very accessible format. It's brilliant.

    (The world banks definition is very very warped though and I'd love to see some more criticism of these institutions)

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