Articles, Blog

Dutch Golden Age: Crash Course European History #15

August 17, 2019

Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So in the last episode, we saw the gentry
and merchant class of the British Isles defeat the old aristocrat-backed, absolutist monarchy
in the Glorious Revolution, ushering in a constitutional government. And this points to a wider development in
European history–and for that matter world history. So, we’ve talked a lot in this series about
being able to shift perspectives–to see things from royal perspectives, or from peasant perspectives,
and so on. But students of history must also learn how
to shift the lenses through which they look at the past. Like, we might look at the past through the
lens of food availability, or through the lens of visual art, or through the lens of
Marxist theory, and so on. And the lenses we choose are often about our
present concerns. The way that we look at the past changes over
time, as the present changes. And in the present where I’m currently standing,
one of the big questions is how to distribute power among humans. So today, we’re going to look at history
through the lens of power–by which I mean, who gets to decide the ambitions and priorities
of a community, and we’ll see how the distribution of that power can change over time. INTRO
So, in the early modern period monarchs could coordinate national defense, and they could
try to collect taxes and even try to impose their religious beliefs on their communities. But increasingly over time, economic activity
was driven and controlled by the so-called productive classes–land-owning gentry who
were producing more food per acre thanks to the agricultural revolution, and merchants
who were making money due to expanding trade and imperialism. These classes held the key to government finances,
because they were the ones with the money and land and goods that could be taxed, which
then–as now–meant that they had power to sway governments. And in many cases, these productive classes
used this power to give themselves a say in the running of their country through advocating
for a constitutional government that could keep the monarchy in check. We see this especially in Dutch history, where
these classes brought about constitutionalism and created what has come to be known as the
Dutch Golden Age. It’ll last forever: just like all golden
ages. So, like British reformers, the Dutch had
an active business class, who were backing the struggle for independence from Spain. This struggle involved the seven northern
provinces of the Low Countries allying with the ten southern provinces after 1576 to defeat
the Spanish in the Eighty Years War (also known as the Dutch revolts or the Dutch War
of Independence or I suppose the Spanish probably thought of it as Our Northern Province’s
Illegal War of Secession. It all depends on who’s telling the story. But anyway, by the end of the sixteenth century
the United Provinces of the low countries had become functionally independent from Spain,
though it wasn’t formalized until 1648 in the Treaty of Westphalia. The southern provinces spun off to constitute
Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of northern France, while the seven northern provinces
became the Netherlands. Each province of the Dutch Republic had a
regent who oversaw provincial affairs, while as a group they participated in the States
General, a kind of council of representatives from each province, which in turn chose a
single executive, known as the stadtholder, or stadtholder. Or probably somewhere halfway in between those
that only Dutch people can say. We’ll say Stadtholder. Anyway, all in all, this was a fairly loose
confederation of states, and they often had competing interests. Like, Holland, on the one hand, was the most
prosperous and contributed the most to the overall finances of the group. It was commercially-oriented and generally
favored peace over war. On the other side were provinces like Zeeland
whose privateers seized ships during the chaos of warfare and were therefore somewhat less
opposed to it. Calvinist clergymen favored war against Catholic
Spain and some pamphleteers simply liked war because “it caused all industry and trade
to grow and prosper.”[1] Which is a bit of an oversimplification. Although, whether war is good for business
is one of the big questions of history. It’s definitely not great for people, though,
which I would argue are possibly even more important than businesses? There was also disagreement among the provinces
about the role of the stadtholder: Should the Stadtholder become more of a monarchical
figure, or should the United Provinces continue to function as a kind of republic? So we’re talking here about big differences
about fundamental matters, like war and peace and how power should be distributed within
the confederation. And these differences prevented the kind of
focused central government that England built after its Glorious Revolution. But nonetheless, the States General had greater
unity in economic policy—that is in its strategy for backing trade—than the English
did, whose conservative aristocracy were always battling the commercial classes both before
and after the English civil war. So despite a measure of political disunity,
the Dutch Republic prospered in the seventeenth century and in spite of warfare, it actually
became a comparatively tolerant state. In fact its prosperity made it a kind of mecca
for all sorts of artisans and business people who wanted to participate in Dutch hustle
and bustle. [[TV: BARUCH SPINOZA]] The republic became
a center of printing for people whose thoughts had been censored elsewhere. For instance, philosopher Baruch Spinoza denied
the immortality of the soul and didn’t believe in a transcendent deity. Those were pretty radical ideas in 17th century
Europe, and in fact, Spinoza was banished from his Jewish congregation in his early
twenties, but he continued his philosophical labors, and he was able to continue publishing. It’s also worth noting that, like most philosophers,
Spinoza did have a day job–he ground lenses for microscopes and telescopes. Meaning that he was very good at shifting
historical lenses. I feel like I should apologize to my friends
and family for that joke. Except. That I’m not sorry. But Spinoza’s Portuguese Jewish ancestors
had settled in Amsterdam in the sixteenth century, and Jewish people from Spain also
migrated north to escape persecution by Isabella and Ferdinand and their royal descendants. Pilgrims and many other religious non-conformists
also went to the Netherlands, as did many Huguenots after the French revocation of the
Edict of Nantes in 1685. The citizens of the Dutch Republic were among
the most diverse in Europe at the time, and that contributed to the Netherlands prosperity. So thriving businesses arose at the time,
especially ones deriving from the early maritime networks its merchants had developed in Japan,
Southeast Asia, and the New World late in the sixteenth century. Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge was one person
who saw overseas trade as key to advancing overall Dutch prosperity. Along with other military men and adventurers,
embarked on securing the spice trade for the Netherlands
This largely involved expanding trade networks with present day Indonesia. Matelieff de Jonge wrote a book called Discourse
on the State and Trade of the Indies that described the Indonesian islands and the broader
southern oceanic region, and the Dutch government took notice of the riches promised by the
spice trade, so they authorized the creation of trading companies whose military forces
didn’t just take territory, but also sought to advance trade, at times acquiring goods
or establishing trade routes via force or the threat of it. These Indian Ocean trade networks were highly
developed, and Europeans were new to them, and relatively inexperienced. Especially the Dutch. The Spanish and Portuguese had been at it
for more than a century. And so despite armed trading companies, gaining
the upper hand in trade took the Dutch generations, although they would use alliances with local
leaders and military might to become imperialist powers in time, and eventually extract far
more than they invested in the well-being of colonies. But before all that, Holland’s merchants
began bringing back an array of plants and commodities, which stimulated innovation,
while its geographic positioning enabled its ships to access north-south and east-west
trade routes. And as English merchants and leaders became
wrapped up in decades of political disputes and lethal combat among themselves, the Dutch
began to outperform them in trade. Soon the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese
as the primary Atlantic slave traders, although the English would eventually overtake them. But by the middle of the 17th Century, the
center of economic activity in Europe had migrated from the Mediterranean and Italian
city-states, north. The Dutch were thriving. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. 1. The Dutch took advantage of their independence 2. and reduced war expenses by 3. 1. expanding their shipping capacity and 4. 2. building a network of canals connecting
400 miles of major cities 5. which improved communication and trade
regionally. 6. Amsterdam flourished, 7. growing to over 200,000 people by late in
the century. 8. And as it grew, land reclamation and civil
engineering advanced, 9. along with the now-famous design of Amsterdam’s
houses, 10. many of which are still standing. 11. In fact, I lived in a 17th century Dutch home
while writing The Fault in Our Stars. 12. But speaking of innovation, Dutch painter
and inventor Jan Van der Heyden devised a long-burning wick, 13. which brought cities nighttime illumination 14. and a reduction in crime. 15. He also created portable pumping devices to
extinguish fires, 16. which drastically reduced the destructive
power of urban fires beginning in the seventeenth century. 17. Meanwhile Dutch artists, including Van der
Heyden, excelled in painting some relatively new portrait subjects: 18. common people, 19. and their everyday lives and domestic
interiors, 20. and the commodities that increasingly
filled their homes. 21. Many of these commodities came from distant
lands 22. and included Chinese porcelain, Middle
Eastern carpets, and imported textiles. 23. In addition, the paintings of Johannes Vermeer, 24. alongside those of Van der Heyden, 25. featured maps and globes, 26. testifying to the cosmopolitanism of the middle
and upper classes. 27. But even ordinary workers in Dutch cities
might have a painting and books for intellectual and visual nourishment, 28. which was a stark contrast from just a
century or two earlier. Thanks Thought Bubble. So with the Dutch now commanding trade in
a way that the English could not, Oliver Cromwell’s government sought to take back control of
the seas with the Navigation Act of 1651. It mandated the use of English ships for any
goods using English ports, whether in Britain itself or in its colonies. This was one example of legislated mercantalism. Now, we’ve mentioned this before, but mercantalist
theory sees the global economy as finite. We now understand that the size of the global
economy’s overall pie can get bigger and smaller, but at the time Mercantilist theory
saw the overall economy as stagnant, which meant to become wealthier, you had to take
wealth from other places. Tarriffs for instance, were a common feature
of mercantalism–with a finite economic pie, a nation should only export goods and take
in gold for them; it should never buy foreign goods because that would mean losing wealth
to a competing nation. Now, this obviously happened most dramatically
in colonized regions, but it also happened within Europe, as nations sought to take wealth
and possessions from one another. Three separate times between 1652 and 1674,
the English provoked warfare with the Dutch in order to gain an upper-hand in trade. For the most part, the Dutch prevailed in
the first two of these wars, even getting some relaxation in the Navigation Acts as
part of peacemaking. But one exception was the Treaty of Breda
that ended the war of 1665-67, when the English gained permanent control of New Amsterdam
(now known as New York). This effectively knocked the Dutch Republic
out of what would become the lucrative North American sphere of trade and settlement, and
also indirectly led to They Might Be Giants’ third best song. But the third of these wars from 1672-74 concerned
politics more than mercantilist issues. It aroused high passions over enhancing the
role of the stadtholder and bringing William of Orange to become perhaps stadtholder for
life. If you’re wondering why the Dutch soccer
team wears orange, by the way, that’s why. In 1672 an angry mob, believing that William’s
rise was being prevented by brothers and high officials Johan de Witt and Cornelis de Witt
proceeded to lynch, flay, and cannibalize those brothers. The fight over how concentrated power should
be, and who should have that power, clearly wasn’t over. So even as it continued to prosper, the Dutch
Republic was profoundly politically divided by the end of the 17th century. Meanwhile, Great Britain, its rival on the
seas, had more or less resolved its political questions and created the ground rules for
an effective monarchy and its relationship with the commercial classes. and that meant the Dutch Golden Age receded. As golden ages always do. England meanwhile, was rising again–although
only temporarily. Next time we’ll see how eastern Europe was
faring during the seventeenth century. Thanks for watching; I’ll see you then. ________________
[1] Quoted in Geoffrey Parker, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the
Seventeenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), 237.


  • Reply September Avenue August 14, 2019 at 5:50 am

    I love learning from this. Please continue this noble endeavor.

  • Reply Hamed Pour August 14, 2019 at 6:13 am

    WTF!!!! John Green … YOU wrote that eye-watering book!! Mind blown!

  • Reply Dávid Kertész August 14, 2019 at 6:14 am

    Crash course European history. Now with jokes!

  • Reply James Burtton August 14, 2019 at 6:30 am

    4:15 John clearly hasn't heard about the Ferengi 34th rule of acquisition. "War is good for business."

  • Reply Muse Winter August 14, 2019 at 7:05 am

    Thank you for teaching me so much

  • Reply GaaradancepartyX August 14, 2019 at 7:06 am

    not sure how you take suggestions for courses but i would love to see a crash course music theory!

  • Reply The King In the North August 14, 2019 at 7:22 am

    Ah yes, the Golden Age. When we plundered and enslaved the world to enrich ourselves. Good times…

  • Reply ThatDutchguy August 14, 2019 at 7:52 am

    Merck toch hoe sterck nu in 't werck sich al steld,
    Die 't allen tijd' so ons vrijheit heeft bestreden.
    Siet hoe hij slaeft, graeft en draeft met geweld,
    Om onse goet en ons bloet en onse steden.
    Hoort de Spaensche trommels slaen!
    Hoort Maraens trompetten!
    Siet hoe komt hij trecken aen,
    Bergen te bezetten.
    Berg op Zoom hout u vroom,
    Stut de Spaensche scharen;
    Laet 's Lands boom end' sijn stroom
    Trouwlijck doen bewaren!

    't Moedige, bloedige, woedige swaerd
    Blonck en het klonck, dat de vonken daeruijt vlogen.
    Beving en leving, opgeving der aerd,
    Wonder gedonder nu onder was nu boven;
    Door al 't mijnen en 't geschut,
    Dat men daeglijcx hoorde,
    Menig Spanjaert in sijn hut
    In sijn bloed versmoorde.
    Berg op Zoom hout sich vroom,
    't Stut de Spaensche scharen;
    't Heeft 's Lands boom end' sijn stroom
    Trouwlijck doen bewaren!

    Die van Oranjen quam Spanjen aen boord,
    Om uijt het velt als een helt 't geweld te weeren;
    Maer also dra Spinola 't heeft gehoord,
    Trekt hij flux heen op de been met al sijn heeren.
    Cordua kruijd spoedig voort,
    Sach daer niet te winnen,
    Don Velasco liep gestoord:
    't Vlas was niet te spinnen
    Berg op Zoom hout u vroom,
    't Stut de Spaensche scharen;
    't Heeft 's Lands boom end' sijn stroom
    Trouwlijck doen bewaren!

  • Reply Rick Corthals August 14, 2019 at 8:14 am

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Reply Bastiaan de Bruijn August 14, 2019 at 8:57 am

    sees Dutch Golden Age
    Seems we have to re-steal the spice trade bois!

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

    – This message was brought to you by the VOC

  • Reply LucArvid August 14, 2019 at 9:09 am


  • Reply S. L. August 14, 2019 at 9:12 am

    3rd best song? What are the other two?

  • Reply Rakasiwiii fiddihaq August 14, 2019 at 9:57 am

    2:54 i like that map

  • Reply PingFuan Lee August 14, 2019 at 10:07 am

    crashcourse contemporary american history: from free market economy to mercantilism

  • Reply Historical Otaku August 14, 2019 at 10:14 am

    John Green has a beard

    Wow i feel old now

  • Reply Ritchie August 14, 2019 at 10:18 am

    The more I study European history the more I understand why the American Constitution is like it is.

  • Reply Platoqp August 14, 2019 at 10:18 am

    Tijd om de comment sectie te koloniseren, glorie aan Nederland!!

  • Reply Val Berry August 14, 2019 at 10:19 am

    Dutch all look the same, men, women, 500 y ago, now.

  • Reply Michel Ottens August 14, 2019 at 10:41 am

    Fun fact: 19th century historians interpreted those old Dutch homes as authentically put into painting. These images were then institutionalized (starting in England) as the ideal kinds of homes and possessions that every citizen should by rights be able to afford and buy into. In truth these were very much fictional paintings. Judith Flanders (in The Making of Home) collects current historical work to show that these paintings were complete fictions. People didn't live in buildings anything like that, nor did they own that kind of stuff. Painters just staged these images to mean something and look nice. They did in the long run shape the imagination of what people might want to own or live like. COlonial souvenirs and display cabinets and big living rooms only became a thing that existed after that.

  • Reply Nick dB August 14, 2019 at 10:53 am

    Pretty good video. There are a few very important corrections or additions that need to be posted though, already saw people post them in other comments but I'll just continue the trend:

    1. the Dutch government had a slightly different structure than described in the video. The Republic was a confederacy of 8* self-ruling states with their own laws, of which each had their own parliament called an Estates, which consisted of representatives of the self-ruling citystates and the rural landholders. 7 of these states would send their representatives to the Estates-General (confederal parliament) which would take decisions on confederal or international issues.
    (* one of the 8 states, Drenthe, was too poor and had too low of a population to pay confederal taxes, so in return of giving up confederal representation Drenthe was exempted of confederal taxes. Therefore we only talk about 7 states. Besides that there were three territories which were considered occupied territories because most of their states as a whole were still in the hands of Spain and therefore didn't receive any representation in the confederal parliament)
    The Stadtholder was the highest executive official of a state, appointed by their Estates, who would have a few ceremonial jobs tied to administration and judicial issues but most importantly the title of Stadtholder was tied to the position of head of the army of a member state. The problem for the republic was that all the states would traditionally appoint the same man from the Orange-Nassau dynasty, the family of the nominal leader of the Dutch war of Independence, William 'the Silent' of Orange-Nassau. This caused a lot of conflicts within the republic because the Orange-Nassau dynasty wanted to develop the position of Stadtholder into that of a nominal king, while the opposing State Faction (or Republicans) were in favour of developing a full republic and abolishing the Stadtholder position.
    Besides the Stadtholder was another very important office, namely the Raadspensionaris, or Council Pensionary. The Raadspensionaris was the chief advisor and chairman of the Estates of the provinces of Zeeland and Holland, the two richest provinces in the republic. The Raadspensionaris of Holland (usually referred to in English as the Grand Pensionary) would also act as the chief advisor and chairman of the Estates-General as a whole, as both the governments of Holland and that of the entire country were located in the same city, Den Haag. Besides that the Raadspensionaris would also act as the Minister/Secretary of Foreign Affairs, thus the job was an early modern combination of Prime Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister. The Raadspensionaris and the Stadtholder would usually be in conflict with each other because Holland was a Republican stronghold and would usually appoint a Republican Raadspensionaris, while the Orange-Nassau Stadtholder would obviously be the head of the Stadtholder's, or Orangist, faction.

    2. This isn't really said in the video but it's usually always assumed, namely the myth that the majority of wealth of the Dutch Republic would come from trade outside of Europe. However, at most intercontinental trade would only make about 10% of the income of the country, and often this would probably be much less. The source of Dutch wealth came from both it's location WITHIN Europe as well as the dense population, good agricultural yield and interconnected cities. The Netherlands had a symbiotic relation with another nearby 'confederation', the Hansaetic League, and other trading partners in the Baltic Sea. the Netherlands would import basic recourses and foodstuffs (most importantly grain and timber) from that area and other regions nearby (such as wool from England). Because of the high urban density and connection between the different cities and the outside world the Netherlands developed a very early modern industrial system of artisan workshops that would import raw goods from other countries and made everything from pottery to cloth to ships and sell them back to other countries as a profit. Because farmers didn't have to grow grain or other basic foodstuffs they could instead focus on more profitable crops or products, such as dairy products and hops for beer, which they could then also export to other countries as a profit. This trade relation with the Baltic area would be known as the "moedernegotie", roughly translated as "mother of (all) trade".

    3. The political situation didn't cause the end of the Dutch Golden Age, simply the introduction of mercantilism caused that, not only the English would implement it but most former importers of Dutch goods would as well. In the 18th century the Netherlands would consolidate most trade routes they still had and the subsequent era would instead be known as the "Silver Age". It only came crashing down when the French invaded the Netherlands after the French Revolution and caused a 20-year long recession as the Netherlands couldn't trade with other countries anymore.

  • Reply bellasgonemissing August 14, 2019 at 11:06 am

    the 'more light than heat' and 'the sequel' thing made me laugh

  • Reply felix borges August 14, 2019 at 11:27 am

    All golden ages must come to an end.. even ours I see what you're getting at Mr. Green

  • Reply Goyon Man August 14, 2019 at 11:40 am

    Through the lens of Marxist theory

  • Reply Goyon Man August 14, 2019 at 11:42 am

    "Illegal war"


  • Reply Jon Lott August 14, 2019 at 12:06 pm

    This was one of the funniest and best Crash Course episodes I've seen.

  • Reply shingshongshamalama August 14, 2019 at 12:32 pm

    4:18 careful there, John. Your corporate sponsors might not like talk like that.

  • Reply Andrei Teodorescu August 14, 2019 at 1:00 pm

    Woo, finally, something about Eastern Europe!!!

  • Reply Frolal August 14, 2019 at 1:14 pm


  • Reply Interprestor August 14, 2019 at 1:44 pm

    As a note, the Dutch 'w' is much more akin to the English than the German 'w'. That is to say, the sound is not a halfway v/w sound.

  • Reply Jaim Rajin August 14, 2019 at 2:14 pm

    One word,

    T U L I P S

  • Reply tha Proforce August 14, 2019 at 2:16 pm

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Reply LoploLevi August 14, 2019 at 2:16 pm

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D T

  • Reply Pseudo Nym August 14, 2019 at 2:24 pm

    Anyone else half-expecting Hilbert to show up with a Wilhelmus meme?

  • Reply Achinth Murali August 14, 2019 at 2:31 pm

    The Dutch will rise again!

  • Reply firstname lastname August 14, 2019 at 2:33 pm

    Omg. I read that as the Douche Golden Age for some reason. I'm like wow, that's now! Lol

  • Reply BetuJones August 14, 2019 at 2:40 pm


  • Reply Alexander Dompeling August 14, 2019 at 2:59 pm

    I must say the reason the why De Witt brothers were murdered wasn't just because where preventing the rise of the Orangists but because during their reign there was 'Het Rampjaar' (The disaster year) were the Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by England, France, and the bishop of Münster and archbishop of Cologne. The Dutch people where fed up with the goverment and when the Orangists saw their opportunity they seized power and killed the De Witt brothers.

  • Reply OKUDA August 14, 2019 at 3:07 pm

    The Netherlands, Dutch or Holland?
    What is the right name???????!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Reply Baukereg August 14, 2019 at 3:16 pm

    Pretty awesome, but not as awesome as Bergkamp's goal against Argentina on the 1998 world cup.

  • Reply sara s August 14, 2019 at 3:20 pm

    Weren't the Dutch people among the most evil?

  • Reply Jordi Danen August 14, 2019 at 4:30 pm

    We were on top of the world

  • Reply JulianBeek August 14, 2019 at 4:38 pm

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Reply Nicholas Garwood August 14, 2019 at 5:30 pm


  • Reply MonitorMaloten August 14, 2019 at 5:38 pm


  • Reply Matthew McNeany August 14, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    'Our Northern provinces illegal war of succession' – Isn't that how Spain has been referring to Catalan and the Basque country for the last 50 years? Plus de Change

  • Reply Sibusiso Biyela August 14, 2019 at 6:12 pm

    Nice touch with the tulips at 9:00

  • Reply Someone Silence August 14, 2019 at 6:33 pm

    Internet: Exists
    The Dutch: G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Reply Mieke Kuppen August 14, 2019 at 6:57 pm

    I´m so glad you weren´t sorry :-p

  • Reply insaneweasel1 August 14, 2019 at 7:16 pm

    Looking at history from a Marxist perspective is like looking at geology from a flat Earth perspective.

  • Reply Tim Kraan August 14, 2019 at 7:27 pm

    Good episode, but I feel like the moeder negotie, the "mother trade", the trade with scandinavia and the baltics shouldn't have been skipped. This trade, while not as exciting as the east indies trade, was crucial too the succes of the dutch.

    It allowed the dutch too get cheap things like wheat and wood from the north. This way dutch peasants could focus on things other than food production and specialize.

    Northern countries have also been influenced by this trade, for example st petersburg.

  • Reply Jan Sanono August 14, 2019 at 7:33 pm


  • Reply alvedonaren August 14, 2019 at 7:43 pm

    #14 doesn't show up in the playlist.

  • Reply Laporta Ho August 14, 2019 at 8:01 pm

    Never knew the succession from Spain part. Geographically these countries didn't look relatable at all? And I have a new question: Is there a reason why the Dutch language is more similar to English & German, rather than Spanish (given that Netherlands was part of Spain)?
    I am really looking forward to the Eastern European History; it wasn't mentioned very often.

  • Reply Karl Marx August 14, 2019 at 8:36 pm

    Here in Europe this is what we call:

  • Reply Chilukar August 14, 2019 at 8:39 pm

    Mercantilism a 500 year old out of date theory that assumes that trade is a zero sum game.
    Currently believed by Donald Trump.

  • Reply 4c1dr3fl3x August 14, 2019 at 8:40 pm

    Is now a bad time to remind everyone that the United States began as a Corporation with stockholders before it was a white flight reservation for hyper conservative religious nuts?

  • Reply mr98christian August 14, 2019 at 9:16 pm

    can't wait for john to say the ottoman empire was super peaceful and amazing while he dehumanizes the western empires

  • Reply chegeny August 14, 2019 at 9:21 pm

    Even old New York was once New Amsterdam.
    Why they changed it I can now say was the Treaty of Breda.

  • Reply aperson22222 August 14, 2019 at 9:42 pm

    It does seem like the poor Hapsburgs come off as the villains of European history, doesn’t it? Leyenda Negra, Maybe?

  • Reply TheMakersRage August 14, 2019 at 10:02 pm

    "And so Nixon was elected and the American Golden Age came to an end." Future Robot John Green

  • Reply Gordon Fiala August 14, 2019 at 11:17 pm

    Said it before. It's hard to not be impressed with the Dutch.

  • Reply GM Steelhaven August 14, 2019 at 11:20 pm

    Lens of Marxist Theory: I can't see through the bodies of 292 million people.
    I'll pass on Socialist/Marxist/Communist/Fascist Political and Economic Theories.

  • Reply Mathew Mungra August 14, 2019 at 11:28 pm

    G E K O L O N I S E E R D

  • Reply Stijnandaguitar August 14, 2019 at 11:29 pm


  • Reply Stephen James August 14, 2019 at 11:43 pm

    The question I have, which songs does John think are 1 and 2?

  • Reply I’m Not A Gamer August 15, 2019 at 12:23 am

    “There are only two things I can’t stand in this world: people who are intolerant of other people’s cultures…and the DUTCH!”

  • Reply Bailey M August 15, 2019 at 12:40 am

    All this time, I didn't know this was actually the famous author John Green. Wow, I am truly impressed.

  • Reply kay hoorn August 15, 2019 at 12:54 am

    The Eternal Anglo

  • Reply Brian Loring August 15, 2019 at 2:12 am

    M A R X I S T T H E O R Y

  • Reply Jeff Petteys August 15, 2019 at 2:20 am

    I appreciate that your oldest source you cited was from 2003 and not 1956 lol

  • Reply no body August 15, 2019 at 2:58 am

    Why I can't see the video #14 anywhere?

  • Reply culwin August 15, 2019 at 3:03 am

    Wait… the Jaden Smith studio?

  • Reply Xavier Simoneau August 15, 2019 at 3:07 am

    That intro was the mos postmodern thng i heard in a while.

  • Reply Valeria Del Rio-Rodriguez August 15, 2019 at 4:32 am

    5:58 XD that jk! LOL

  • Reply coco cat August 15, 2019 at 4:45 am

    What happened to episode 14? Was this video labeled wrong?

  • Reply Paul-Octave Hébert August 15, 2019 at 4:50 am

    Lang leve het Nederlandse uitzonderlijkheid! 🇳🇱🇳🇱🇳🇱🇳🇱

  • Reply Samuel Stahl August 15, 2019 at 5:34 am

    TMBG best song is "Don't Let's Start."

  • Reply Leo Crnogorcevic August 15, 2019 at 11:19 am

    lol is this series 'European history' or 'Western European history'?

  • Reply Northie August 15, 2019 at 11:25 am

    Me: DE GOUDEN EEUW : )
    John: It lasted 50 years.
    Me: : (

  • Reply King Henry VIII Tudor August 15, 2019 at 12:44 pm

    The Netherlands aka Proto America
    (I am not American sue me)

  • Reply rjh00 August 15, 2019 at 1:06 pm

    Even to this day the Netherlands is very diverse, I don't know if it still among the most diverse in Europe, but it's probably up there.

  • Reply Effect VX August 15, 2019 at 1:19 pm


  • Reply Melda92TRS August 15, 2019 at 1:26 pm

    More Light than Heat!

  • Reply CybershamanX August 15, 2019 at 3:46 pm

    (9:15) So, what happened on the 16th of September, 2009? I noticed something written on that day on the calendar. I tried taking a screenshot and zooming in, but it's just not legible enough. 🙁

  • Reply CybershamanX August 15, 2019 at 4:10 pm

    (9:53) And GLOBES!!! 😀

  • Reply McLoughlin Andrew August 15, 2019 at 5:36 pm

    More light than heat!

  • Reply wouter van de Hoef August 15, 2019 at 5:57 pm


  • Reply KGB Analyst August 15, 2019 at 6:20 pm

    Best history series ever! thx John!

  • Reply Jackthe5Ripper August 15, 2019 at 7:05 pm

    There is a small mistake at the end of the video. Stadhouders served for life and the reason for the brother de witts murder was not about them standing in the way of the house of orange, though that was part of it. They were murdered due to the disastrous war with France and the de witts had up until then been pro-french. So they were seen as having traitorously sold the republic out to the french.

  • Reply Nick D August 15, 2019 at 7:09 pm

    I’m so excited to see Eastern Europe covered! I hope there will be mention of Winged Hussars arriving.

  • Reply cizlerable August 15, 2019 at 10:14 pm

    Stadhouder or (literal translation): cityholder. You somehow translated half of that word.

  • Reply D WG August 15, 2019 at 10:33 pm

    The Golden age was 1988. Every Dutch person knows this.

  • Reply Dewy Wannamaker August 16, 2019 at 12:11 am

    I miss the shock pen.

  • Reply firebirdcas August 16, 2019 at 2:59 am

    Make one about European Buccaneers in the west -> Begging of piracy Henry Morgan

  • Reply farnkthetank gameryt August 16, 2019 at 4:06 am

    why does he look like a drug addict now?

  • Reply Lukub August 16, 2019 at 11:15 am

    Edict of niance in sixteen eighty five sounds a bit like nonsense to me.

  • Reply tiggerchen3 August 16, 2019 at 2:14 pm

    Merdeka! 🇮🇩

  • Reply Riaan G August 16, 2019 at 2:50 pm

    Now. If we can just teach our government here in South Africa that our constitution is not toilet paper and the people who brought these ideas to Africa aren't the enemy, we can make some progress. Just maybe.

  • Reply trejkaz August 16, 2019 at 5:34 pm

    Particle Man was of course the best.

  • Reply Miranha August 16, 2019 at 10:44 pm

    Theyr golden age start ending with portuguese golden age

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