Articles, Blog

[10분상식 세계백과] 과테말라 : 역사, 경제, 중남미국가, 여행

December 15, 2019


=English subtitles=[10 minute Common Knowledge World Encyclopedia] Hello everyone. It’s time for
10-minute common knowledge world encyclopedia. 1. Introduction The official name of the country known as
‘Guatemala’ is ‘The Republic of Guatemala’. The national flag of Guatemala is
made of clear blue and white. Blue represents the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific
Ocean and white represents a desire for peace. The symbol in the middle is
a National emblem of Guatemala. It is composed of guns and swords,
Quetzal (the national bird), bay leaves, and a scroll that says
“Independence in September 15, 1821”. The guns stand for a strong will to protect and
defend Guatemala’s rights, even with the use of force. And the swords stand for justice and sovereignty. The national bird, Quetzal,
represents freedom and independence. The bay leaf branches represent victory and glory. The scroll that says
“Independence in September 15, 1821” marks the anniversary of
Central America’s independence from Spain. Guatemala shares its border with Mexico towards the
northwest and El Salvador towards the southeast. The area is about 10 square kilometers,
about one-half the size of the Korean Peninsula. The capital city is Guatemala City. The population is about 17 million people as of 2019. There lives a similar number of population that
lives in Chile and in the Netherlands. Guatemala’s total GDP per year
was about $75 billion as of 2017. It ranks 67th in the world, along with
the Dominican Republic and Kenya. Guatemala’s racial composition shows that
the 23 tribes of the natives are about 43%, the Spanish white and
Indian mixed-race Mestizo are about 50%, and the rest is made up of 7%, including the white. Spanish is the official language,
but there still exists about 23 Mayan native languages. The major religion is Roman Catholic,
but the number is decreasing over time. Evangelical churches, Christianity, and
the Madhism also have abundant followers. However, the Mayans are preserving
their traditional religious aspects and they sometimes show the mixture of the two. 2. history Currently, Guatemala is a region where
the glorious Mayan civilization flourished. There is a theory that the name Guatemala came from
the Mayan word “land of trees.” The ancient Mayan civilization began to flourish around
the 4th century B.C. until the 6th century B.C. Around the 9th century A.D. the Mayan civilization
gave up its home base in northern Guatemala. and moved to Mexico. Then they scattered and formed small tribal kingdoms
until they were conquered by Spain in 1524. In fact, the Mayan civilization declined
rapidly by the 9th century B.C. It is still unclear where the Mayans came from and
formed a culture that flourished for about 1,000 years And why they disappeared suddenly. After Spain conquered Mexico in 1521, They sent General Pedro de Alvarado to
join the conquest of Guatemala. Three years later, in 1524,
they succeeded in colonizing Guatemala. Spain then ruled Guatemala for
nearly 300 years until 1821. In 1543, Spain installed the Commander-in-Chief of
Central America in Guatemala, which played a central role in the administration,
justice and parish throughout all Central America. Later, inspired by the French Revolution,
religious people living in Guatemala came to power and waged a war against
Spanish colonial rule for independence. Guatemala, after gaining
independence from Spain in 1821, joined four other Central American countries such as
Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and together formed
the Federal Republic of Central America. But the Federal Republic of Central America dismantled
in 1838 due to conflicts between the member states, and Guatemala officially declared itself as
a republic in 1847. After declaring itself as a republic,
Guatemala actively introduced American capital to build roads, develop mining, and
other activities to pursue nation development. However, major economies and
interests were subject to U.S. capital, which resulted in side effects, and autocracy became rampant. In response, a liberal president came to
power from 1945. Moreover, the opposition forces
carried out a coup, and for some time, a right-winged military regime was established. As such, confrontation and confusion continued. Finally, Guatemala spent about 36 years
from the early 1960s to 1996 in a terrible war between
the government and guerrilla forces. Alvaro Arzu, who was finally sworn in
as president in 1996 by democratic elections, signed a peace treaty with the rebels, and officially recognized the guerrilla group in
1997 to promote national unity, which provided a turning point for
democratic country and economic development. In the years since then, Guatemala has continued to
implement policies that addressed issues such as restoring security and narrowing the gap
between the rich and the poor. 3. Politics & Economics During the early 1990s, when the collapse of the Cold
War left Guatemala with no more outside support, on December 29, 1996, a peace agreement was established between the Guatemalan government and
the National Revolutionary Alliance. As part of the peace agreement, a law was created, which addresses
the immunity from war and political crimes, but will not forgive sins for the deaths, killings, torture
and disappearances of nearly 200,000 people. In the early years of the Reconciliation Act, immunity from prosecution was expected to be waived
for political leaders and key military officials, but as we entered the 2000s,
officials took place in the nation’s court. Then, Former colonel Felipe Cusanero was sentenced
150 years in prison for the disappearance of farmers and Former General Efraín Ríos Montt faced up to 80
years in prison for killing 1,800 indigenous people. Rigoberta Menchú, who let the world know about
the massive massacre of aborigines, won the Nobel Peace Prize. Recently, the Guatemalan judiciary sentenced soldiers to
12,000 years in prison for mass genocide. Did you say 12,000 years? Realistically, it’s impossible,
but symbolically, it’s a very heavy sentence. Guatemala declared itself as a republic and gave executive power to a president whose
four-year term was elected by a referendum. Parliament is a unicameral parliament, and
mayors and other local government heads were elected once every four years,
along with the president and lawmakers. Like many Latin American countries,
corruption was rampant in Guatemala’s politics. Comedian-turned-politician Jimmy Morales won by
a landslide in the 2015 presidential vote with more than 70% of the votes. He was elected as a president and shouted the
following campaign slogan: “Not corrupt, nor a thief.” Later, when several irrationality accusations
were revealed, people sneered at him saying that he was not just a comedian but
he actually did a comedy about political moves. Guatemala is an agricultural country with
half of its workforce engaged in agriculture, with agricultural products accounting for
40 percent of its exports. Based on tropical climates and fertile volcanic ash soil, they grow a variety of crops depending on
altitude difference. Major agricultural products include corn, sugar cane,
bananas, coffee and beans, which are managed by Large american companies in
the form of large plantations. Guatemala is the 11th largest
coffee producer in the world, producing about 230,000 tons of
coffee per year as of 2017. Guatemala’s coffee is mainly
cultivated in volcanic areas. Antigua, the epitome of premium smoky coffee,
is a representative example. Coffee was first introduced to Guatemala in the 1750s. But it wasn’t until the early 19th century
that full-scale production began. Most of the land is made up of
mineral rich volcanic ash soil, and the climate is also clear of
dry and high in precipitation. Because of the large difference between
high and low temperatures and in the humidity, it is said to be an ideal environment for growing coffee. Especially, the Pacific coastline is
made up of 33 volcanic areas. It produces Antigua,
the epitome of smoky coffee with a fiery aroma. Since coffee production plays
an important role in the national economy, Coffee Law was established in 1960
which turned coffee production into a national level, in order to produce high quality coffee. Guatemala has a serious income inequality. 65% of the population is poor and among them,
half are experiencing extreme poverty It has maintained a low growth trend due to
the global economic recession since 2000. Through signing FTA with the U.S.,
restoration of the bonded construction industry, and economic stimulus measures,
the government could maintain the average of 3% growth since 2004. Industries are: manufacturing and tourism of raw sugar,
textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, oil, metals, rubber, etc. but the unemployment problem is serious because they can’t absorb overpopulation in
the agricultural sector sufficiently. 4. Natural Environment & Culture Guatemala has a land mass of up to
4,000 meters from the coast. It’s all over the mountains,
and it’s got a lot of different climates. Coastal areas and low-lying areas have
tropical climates with annual average temperatures of
around 28 degrees Celsius. Highlands over 1,500 meters,
including the metropolitan area have temperate climates with annual average temperatures
ranging from 18 degrees to 20 degrees Celsius. The temperate climate is much cooler and pleasant. So the vast majority of the population is concentrated in
the central metropolitan area and in high-lying areas. Guatemala is vulnerable to natural disasters due to
torrential rains during the rainy season, as well as volcanic activity and earthquakes. In addition, the country is notorious for
having extremely poor security due to accidents caused by legalization of guns. Despite such instability, many tourists from
all over the world visit the country to see its outstanding natural scenery and
cultural heritage. Maybe that’s why Guatemala is a highly developed country in Central America,
along with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, etc. One of the most famous tourist
attractions in Guatemala is Tikal. Located in the northern low-lying rainforest, Tikal remains the beauty and
wonder of the ancient Mayan civilization, making it one of Guatemala’s top tourist attractions. It used to be a huge city with 250,000 people. Now surrounded by wildlife reserves,
it is under close management by the state. It’s so popular that people would have to wait at
least two days to tour the Tikal area in detail. Next, as beloved tourist destination,
there is Lago de Atitlan. It is also what Aldous Huxley,
a famous English novelist, described as “the most beautiful lake in the world.” Around Lake Caldera,
about 150 kilometers west of Guatemala City, there is a spectacular place with
many beautiful mountains. If the two places we introduced were famous places for historical cultural relics and
beautiful natural scenery of Guatemala, last famous tourist place is Chichicastenango Market. People also call it as Chichi. This market is located about two to
three hours southwest of Guatemala City. This market is located in the village of Quiche Maya,
the second largest indigenous group in Guatemala. The village is isolated from any kind of
transportation system. So the tradition is still intact. In this small town, when the market opens on
Thursdays and Sundays, you can meet all the natives
who live nearby buying and selling commodities, clothing, masks,
wood products, ceramics, and more. It is said to be the brightest and
most vibrant market in Central America. 5. a well-known figure One of Guatemala’s most famous celebrities is Miguel Angel Asturias. As a novelist, poet, playwright, journalist, diplomat,
he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967. Asturias is credited with helping Latin American
literature to take an important place in world literature and for creating Latin American magical realism. He worked as a visionary to
expand the horizons of world literature and to promote Latin American literature around the world by looking at deeper meanings,
rather than simply criticizing the real world. and by artistically solving the folktales of
Central and South America. Born in 1899 in Guatemala City, Graduated from San Carlos de Guatemala University, and later in the same year, he left to France to
study at Sorbonne University in Paris. It is at The University of Sorbonne where
he began to write poems and novels, and conducted a study of
civilizations about ancient Central America. Later, he published a book called
The Legends of Guatemala, and after returning to his homeland,
he worked as a journalist and diplomat. One of the most acclaimed novels by
Miguel Angel Asturias is “The President,” a 1946 book about a dictator who
ruled Guatemala from 1892 to 1922. In this book, Asturias is a scathing critic of dictatorship. After the coup in Guatemala in 1954,
he fled to Argentina and lived there for eight years before being appointed ambassador to
France by the Guatemalan government in 1996. Asturias won the 1967 Nobel Prize for Literature for his
work that was rooted in Latin American Indian tradition and for Guatemala’s characteristics,
and he died in Madrid in 1974.

5 Comments

  • Reply 건강식품 April 16, 2019 at 7:12 am

    과테말라의 마야문명 배우고 갑니다. 수고하세요. 앞으로 자주 찾아와서 태풍처럼 많이 응원하는 그런 이웃이 되겠습니다. 전 검색창에 구릿대 효소 치면 1등으로 뜹니다.

  • Reply 류승훈TV July 24, 2019 at 5:40 am

    현재 과테말라 거주 중입니다 ㅎㅎ 국기에 총이 그런 의미였군요. 근데 서로 간의 무력사용도 불사한다가 되버린건가봅니다. 😉

  • Reply Titanoboa October 19, 2019 at 4:10 am

    과테말라가 스페인어인게, 아메리카는 북쪽은 영국, 남쪽은 스페인이 지배했기 때문이죠?

  • Reply 가면라이더 November 24, 2019 at 12:17 pm

    알고계신분이 과테말라서 2주 병원있었는데 돌아가셨어요.가족이 한국에 있어서 병원에서 한국으로 연락이 왔고 병원비 한국돈 5천만원을 요구해서 보내줬데요.. 원래 이렇게 비싼가요

  • Reply 빵개취 December 14, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    과테말라 엄청위험하지않나요? 치안도 개막장이라던데

  • Leave a Reply